1.-According to Newton & Nation which of the following is a problem that most language courses face? a) Having more than the four suggested strands. b) Having less than the four suggested strands. c) Having a lack of balance the four suggested strands.
2.-A good language course requires that students receive: a) A high percentage of input and language features b) A high percentage of output and fluency development c) A balanced percentage of input, output, language ítems and fluency development.
3.-The time-on-task principle expresses that: a) The four strands are justified b) You learn better if you spend more time in learning c) There is no relation between time and learning.
4.-An assumption (according to Nation & Newton) is that teaching and learning activities that have become unfashionable…
a) Have done so for a reason, they are ineffective and should be avoided. b) Can still be used in developing countries which old-fashioned style teacher-student relationships and method. c) May still make a positive contribution to learning if they apply useful principles and if they are focused on worthwhile goals
5.-Traditionally, according to Nation & Newton, teachers would see their listening activities as being somewhat. a) Passive b) Active c) Interactive.
6.-In Nation & Newton´s learning goals the “T” part of the acronym L.I.S.T would be associated with of the following? a) A one-to-one tutoring session between the learner and the teacher. b) The content or ideas in the subject being studied. c) A large, complicateD text to be used as a discourse by the learners.
7.-If I wanted to have a learner deal with receiving written or verbal messages I would use techniques associated with which strand of learning? a) Meaning-focused input b) Meaning-focused output c) Fluency.
8.-How much time does Numan (1998) claim that students typically spend devoted to listening? a) 25 % b) 10 % c) 50 %.
9.-I students are given a dialogue to practice and are asked to write some texts, they are learning through… a) Meaning-focused input b) Meaning-focused outpuT c) Language item and language featureS
10.If I were looking to focus on from rather than meaning which of four strands would I use to do this? a) Meaning-focused input b) Fluency c) Language-focused learning.
11.The balanced use of the four strands in a language course is justify by: a) The time-on-task principle b) Research on teaching c) The activities performed .
12.Which of the four skills of learning a language does Numan (1998) claim is least understood? a) Listening b) Speaking c) Writing.
13.For a language course to be well planned it is necessary that it: a) Contains a great amount of listening and reading b) Concentrates in grammar or vocabulary c) Has an appropriate balance of the so called four strands.
14.A teacher following the pedagogical principles for languages learning laid-out by Nation (1993) should allow for the repeated coverage of the most useful language items in their language course. This could be done via which of the following? a) The use of controlled and simplified material focusing in high frequency items and providing plenty of imput at the same level. b) The use of controlled and simplified material with a balanced focus on variety of items and providing plenty of imput at the same level. c) The use of “realia” material taken from real-life work used to provide students with an eclectic amount of information and providing plenty of imput at the differing levels.
15.Why are opportunities for language learning called strands? Because a) The can seen as long continuous sets of learning conditions that run throughout the whole course. b) They are designed to entangle and confuse the students learning. c) They are separated from the main aim of learning a language.
16 which of the following would the teacher respond when encountering the Comprehension Approach to language
Learning who goes along with the lines of reasoning set forth by Nation and Newton?
a) Agreement b) Disagreement c) Apathy.
17. If a learner was to convey messages by language a teacher would use an exercise associated with which strand of a language course? a) Meaning-focused output b) Language-focused learning c) Fluency.
18. When you learn trough meaning-focused input, you are exposed to …… materials. a) Listening and reading b) Speaking and writing c) Vocabulary and grammar.
19. A teacher who wishes to follow the pedagogical principles suggested by Nation (1993) may attempt to support and push learners to produce spoken and written output in a variety of appropriate genres. Which of the following would be an appropriate activity for doing this?
a) Extended reading tasks. b) Online listening activities c) Role plays.
20. Which of the following aspects of an exercise would not be conductive to a student wanting to attempt to tackle a fluency activity? a) The use of unknow vocabulary b) The use of skimming c) The pressurizing of the students to work at as faster than normal rate.
21. Which of the following would be in toe with the lines of reasoning by Gary and Gary (1981) as a benefit for a learner of delaying speaking and concentrating initially solely on listening? a) The learner is not overloaded by having the focus on two or more skills at the same time. b) The learner is able to enjoy TV in English sooner c) The learner is able to understand commands in foreing countries sooner.
22. In a meaning-focused input activity, the teacher should attempt to create exercises which focus the learner´s interest om gaining knowledge, understanding and… a) Reaching perfection b) Experiencing enjoyment c) Mastering grammar.
23. The time-on-task principle is based on the assumption that students: a) Need to set a specific time to practice b) Learn more if they practice a lot c) Need to have carefully time-planned activities
24. In Nation and Newton´s “learning goals” the “S” part of the acronym L.I.S.T would be associated with which of the following? a) The teacher giving a learner some activities to study for homework b) Language skills such as listening, writing, fluency in using know answers. c) An activity aimed at fostering skills such a s accuracy or fluency.
25. A teacher could advise a student suffering from gaps in their production knowledge during mean-focused output exercises to supplement their learning with which of the following? a) Communication strategies. b) Online written resources. c) Grammar books. .
26. An important rule of thumb suggested by Nation & Newton for new teachers is which of the following? 1. One should choose a teaching method of language learning that best suits their personality and stick to it-the consistency will help students. 2. One should be aware of all teaching methods and be able to apply these in ways that suit learners the teaching conditions and the skills of the teacher. 3. One should be aware of only the teaching methods which are more traditional in their country. Therefore, there will be zero novelties for the students and they will know exactly where they stand.
27.Teachers applying listen and do activities should be aware that they are a) The basis of total physical response language teaching. b) Activities which involve the teacher listening and acting on instructions. c) The basis of the natural approach to teaching. .
28.Teachers typically attempt to create a friendly, safe and cooperative classroom environment. This is done because of which of the following? a. Make a teacher’s life easier by having relax students. b. Prevent complaints from students and parents. c. Reduce anxiety in the learners which affects their willingness to communicate.
29. Which of the following is a key principle of the four strands that should be applied by all language teachers? a) The teacher should always provide large amount of comprehensive input thought both listening and reading. b) The teacher should limit the amount of comprehensible input so as to avoid overload with the students c) The teacher should increase the amount of comprehensible on age and level of the students.
30. A key principle of the four strands theory that should be applied by all language teachers is which of the following.
a) Use analysis, monitoring and assessment to help address learners´language and communication needs b) Neglect fluency development activities c) Focus 50% of the course on language-focused learning.
31. A teacher divides the group into some groups, he gives each group some pictures and ask the students to write some sentences based on the pictures. Group 1 has to make the sentences comparing the pictures; group 2 has to write predictions; Group 3 has to point differences and Group 4 has to write sentences explained what happened before.
In this case the teacher is using the technique called….
a) Descriptions b) Hints c) Ask and more.
32. Principle 2 of the M.I.N.U.S acronym (interest) could involve a teacher organizing. a) Activities that involve movement b) Grammar exercises c) Dictation exercises.
33. If a teacher uses sentences describing something or someone, then he or she shows how to change those sentences to talk about other things he/she uses the …………technique a) Subtitution tables. b) Listening grids c) What is it?
34. In Nation & Newton´s “five principles for teaching beginners” the “M” part of the acronym M.I.N.U.S stands for.. a) Management b) Monitoring c) Meaning.
35. Principle 2 of the MINUS acronym (interest) could involve a teacher organising. a) Field trips b) History lessons c) World geography lessons.
36. With which level of learner are listening grids best applied?
a) Begginers b) Intermediate c) Advanced.
37. Which of the following would be an appropriate way for students to learn sentence patterns? a) Watching cartoons b) Substitution tables c) Cartoons.
38. Some of the learning priorities for migrant, adult, beginners, with limited education and who need general everyday English for living in an English-speaking context are the following a) Being aware of the alphabet of the new language and some phrases to talk about themselves. b) Phrases and vocabulary for talking about issues such as religion or politics. c) Begin to read graded readers, and do interesting activities. .
39. Sentences and Phrases for Greetings, buying and bargaining, getting to places, finding food and accomodation, being polite, are part of the vocabulary…………………….while traveling students show know. a) Beginner b) Adult c) Children.
40. A very well-known activity in which the teacher or students think on an object and write its name on a piece of paper, and the students start asking questions about the object proposed. Students make guesses before completing questions. The person who guesses correctly thinks of the next object and the other learners ask questions. . This activity is called: a) Listening and do b) Twenty questions c) Interview
41. When deciding what to teach in a listening course, the planner has to think on:
a) A variety of issues, among them, age, purpose for learning, their educational background, English experience with, and the context: EFL or ESL. b) Only the purpose for learning and age. c) Educational background and context: EFL or ESL.
42. In a beginner course student are motivated in their languages use by: a) Providing them with easy activities so they do not find any difficulty. b) Engaging them in successful listening and speaking tasks. c) Helping them to cope with meaning focused output.
43. A trainee teacher preparing an English course for begginers should keep in mind that the material and style used should.
a) Be the same regardless of age and ability of age and ability factors.
b) Be flexible depending on whom you are teaching. c) Neglect educational level and keep it simple at all times
44. When following Nation & Newton´s principles of early classes of a beginner´s courses for uneducated adult migrants in the USA one could include which of the following early on? a) Phrases for talking about the culture of your homeland. b) Phrases for talking about job aspirations. c) Phrases and vocabulary for everyday life.
45. Two-way listening is also known as:
a)Transactional b)Conventional c)Interactional.
46. In this course it is stated that when learning a language, it is necessary to start by: a) Taking a listening and speaking course, so you are ready to receive and produce the language. b) Doing listening activities because are challenged to produce the language. c) Practicing speaking, so students are challenged to produce the language.
47. When following Nation & Newton´s principles of early classes of a beginner´s courses for uneducated adult migrants in the USA one could include which of the following early on? a) Vocabulary related to classroom expressions. b) Vocabulary associated with higher-education c) Vocabulary which could be used to explaining your political views or preferences.
48. Attention given in a small part of the lesson, in which a teacher has a student to work and pay special attention to aspects as distinguishing sounds, making the sounds in easy syllables or looking at the teacher`s mouth to see the position of the lips, tongue or teeth is a practice for improving and helping a) Listening b) Pronunciation c) Speaking.
49. The activities for Meaning-focused Listening have some features as students are able to understand what they are listening to, the material is at the right level of students, among others. Which is the characteristic that does not belong to this type of activities? a) There are a few unfamiliar or partly unfamiliar items. b) There is a little bit of deliberate attention given to language features. c) There is small quantity of input.
50. In the past listening was seen as: a) A process by which you kept a conversation b) A passive process by which one person establishes a conversation c) A passive process in which the information is sent to a listener .
51.According to what you have read in Nation ^Newton and advantage of having a learner memorize useful phrases is that… a) It will stand them in good stead for building on the knowledge at later stage b) It can stimulate the cognitive part of the brain associated with language learning. c) Simple communication can occur at an early stage.
52. In Nation & Newton´s “five principles for teaching beginners” the “N” part of the acronym M.I.N.U.S stands for new language. This means… a) A teacher should introduce as much new language as possible at all times – expanding a learner’s vocabulary and competence in a language. b) A teacher should not overload learners with too much new language. c) A teacher should provide new language at certain crucial moments in a course - specially planned out in order for maximum opportunities of student retention and application.
53.The activity in which there is a small amount of written language and learners have to reproduce the message they hear in a new from, is called a) Information transfer b) Supporting listening c) Listen and choose.
54. Which of the following activities is considered not to be used in a meaning-focused listening class? a) Oral cloze b) Listen and choose c) One way listening.
55. When dealing with pronunciation, it is evident to teachers that…. a) The younger the student the more important to focus on correct pronunciation. Lay the groundwork early and the rewards will be reaped later b) The older the students the more important to give some direct attention-there could be interference from their first language c) It should be left to develop in a natural manner-this will make it much more native-speaker like.
56. Which of the following would be an example of supporting listening? a) Listening to a specially designed radio show with native speakers talking in simplified slower speech. b) Add a list of words or pictures for learners to see whilst they listen. c) Giving the students encouragement and moral support via verbal communication.
57. A teacher conducting the activity “listening to stories” would be conducting what type of exercise? a) Meaning focused input b) Meaning focused output c) Language focused learning.
58. A teacher who follows the line of reasoning of Rubin (1994) what believe what in regards to listening strategies? a) Strategy used in unrealistic as it is not applicable to natural conversations. b) There is Little point training learners in strategies that can not be applied. c) They can taught and do improve comprehension.
59. A teacher employing bottom-up and top-down processes together would be seeing listening as a) A single skill b) A variety of sub-skills c) A multi-skilled activity.
60.A teacher adhering to Gary % Gary´s (1981) theory claiming that receptive knowledge grows faster than productive knowledge would know which of the following? a) It´s possible to experience and learn much more of the language by just concentrating in listening if learners had to be able to say all the material in the lessons, progress would be very slow. b) It is possible to experience and learn much more the language by not solely concentrating on listening if learners are able to say all of which they learn in lessons, progress can be anything but slow. c) A mix of learning should not affect the speed at which learners are able to progress. Therefore, a mix of listening speaking reading and writing is wholly appropnate at the beginning of a language course.
61. From what we know about learning, meaning-focused typically emphasizes a a) Bottom-up approach b) Mixed-methods approach c) Top-down approach.
62. Teacher applying natural sounding dialogues would know to make these a) Similar to everyday interactions b) Controlled and narrow. c) Simulating and inventive.
63. A teacher carrying an oral cloze exercise would be aware that when dealing with beginners it is entirely appropriate to do which of the following? a) Give the answers prior to the activity I order to speed-up the exercise. b) Write the answers on the board so that the student can guess. c) Get the students working in pairs to help one another out.
64. A teacher using a top down listening process should be aware that…. a) The teacher assembles the messages piece by piece the speech stream, going from the parts to the whole b) The listener goes from the whole to the parts using their prior knowledge and inference c) The listener understands the message immediately from prior experience and analysis.
65. According to Field (2003) along with reduced forms (contractions). What other speech phenomena present difficulties for al language learners? a) Assimilation and elision (the omission of a vowel, consonant, or syllable in pronunciation) b) Re-syllabification (to from or divide words or phrases into syllables) c) All of assimilation, elision and re-syllabification.
66. A teacher should know that listening activities… a) Are dependent on group work in classes in order to be effective. b) Are well suited to independent learning through listening to recordings. c) Are to be teacher led in class at all times in order to check for understanding.
67. A teacher whishing to apply a dictation text would normally selected a length approximately a) 100 – 150 words long b) 200 – 250 words long c) 300 – 350 words long.
68. The type of dictation in which several printed copies with blanks are distributed. They are completed in a sequential manner, starting from the one with less blanks until coming to the one with more blanks and continues until the learner are writing the a) Guided b) Perfect c) Completion.
69. An oral reproduction activity involves the teacher doing what? a) Providing the learners with online listening exercises to reproduce in class b) Providing the students with written clues of what is they need to reproduce. c) Saying a dialogue only one and having the learner repeat it correctly.
70. When applying a reproduction exercise the teacher should explain to the class that they need to do which of the following? a) Pass on verbal messages to one another based on what a classmate has already told them. b) Read a text and then produce their own written version of it without looking back at the original. c) Listen to an exercise on a prepepared cd by the teacher and then reproduce it in written form.
71. An exercise in which the teacher uses text, which is read several times, then students ask questions about it while the teacher checks understanding of all the words, it is a ……. Exercise. a) Listening b) Pre dictation c) Reading.
72. A teacher wishing to apply a “running dictation” exercise would be using which of the following types of teaching theories? a) Total Physical response. b) Comprehension c) Communication.
73. Which of the following activities would have the teacher reading a text to student in bite-size chunks?
a) Dicto-comp b) 4/3/2 c) Phrase by phrase.
74. The teacher chooses the grammar words of a text and writes them on the board keeping the same order they appeared in the text, then he|she reads the text but first he|she asks the students to pay attention to the dictation in order to identify the difficult words of the text. This type of exercises belongs to the type of dictation called…. a) Guided dictation b) One chance dictation c) Dictation of long phrases.
75. The following are the steps required for Dictoglos Activity, which is the correct order teachers have to follow to perform them? a) Preparation, text comparison between groups, listening and none-taking, text reconstruction in groups, listening for meaning. b) Preparation, listening and none-taking, text comparison between groups, text reconstruction in groups, listening for meaning. c) Preparation, listening for meaning, listening and none-taking, text comparison between groups, text reconstruction in groups, listening for meaning.
76. Dicto-comp uses which of the following skills.
a) Listening and writing b) Listening and speaking c) Speaking and reading.
77. Dictation uses which of the following skills? a) Listening and writing b) Listening and speaking c) Reading and writing
78. According to Nation & Newton a common issue with word stress is which of the following? a) Interference from the learner´s first language can affect the word stress. b) Word stress is ignored c) Students can say words with the stress in the wrong places.
79. The usual criterion for pronunciation that a learner should be striving for is which of the following? a) Perfect accent and understanding b) Understanding and ability c) Intelligibility and identity.
80. The debate about whether native speaker English should be British, American, Australian or other should be based on criteria regarding which of the following? a) Graphical and political issues b) Intelligibility and identity c) Desire and need.
81. When conducting listening exercises involving the use of memory span, teachers should keep in mind that research suggests which of the following? a) Memory span is longer in a learner second rather than first language. b) Memory span is shorter in a learner second rather than first language. c) Memory span should not be expected to change regardless of whether the learner is working in their first or second language. .
82. It is said that experiences and attitude of the learner influences on the learning of pronunciation. One of the important factors is the…. a) Numbers of years that the students has lived in a foreign country b) Quantity of English lessons taken by the student c) Native English teachers that the learner has had
83. The advantage of working the activity called “identifying sounds” is that……… a) All the class can practice and the teacher can see who is able to hear the sound. b) The learners can pronounce with their eyes shut. c) There are various ways of responding in this activity.
84. Achieving native-speaker like pronunciation for adult learners would be considered which of the following? a) Possible only in very few circumstances b) Impossible, this can only be achieved with child learners c) Very impossible depending on the quality of the teacher.
85. A teacher wishing to conduct a delayed repetition exercise would know that it involves which of the following? a) Having the learner listen to a long phrase, waiting a short time, then repeating it. b) Having the teacher listen to short phrase, waiting a short time, then repeating it with more information. c) Having the learner listen to a long phrase, waiting a short time, then putting it in his/her own words.
86. Retelling uses which of the following skills? a) Listening and speaking b) Reading and speaking c) Reading and listening.
87. It is understood by teachers that if a learner begins to speak the foreign language after the age of 6
a) There is normally a great or noticeable accent b) There is normally little or no accent c) It is normally an irrelevant factor with their accent.
88. According to the text, the conditions for teaching and learning is one of the factors that affect the learning of a) Listening b) Another sound system c) Grammar.
89 Reproduction exercises use which of the following skills? a) Listening and speaking b) Listening and reading c) Reading and writing.
90. Oral reproduction uses which of the following skills? a) Listening and speaking b) Reading and speaking c) Reading and writing.
91. The pronunciation of a second language is not only important because it helps in normal communication and specially for making something we pronounce intelligible, but because it helps…. a) A word enter easily into the long-term memory b) The brain to say a word over and over in order to keep it in working memory. c) To become familiar with the patters and rules that work for the second language.
92. A new teacher should be aware that it is absolutely crucial that a dictation text is contructed by a) New vocabulary b) Known vocabulary c) Advanced vocabulary.
93. Delayed copying uses which of the following skills? a) Reading and writing. b) Listening and writing. c) Reading and speaking.
94. According to Stevick (1978) for learners its easy to copy new sounds, but one of the reason they may have difficulty is….. a) Teachers do not give them a suitable model for pronunciation b) The anxiety they feel when making a new sounds c) Students are not sure about how they have to pronounce words.
95. A teacher who follows the same line of thoughts as Nation & Newton would claim that the experience and attitude of the learner can…
a) Affect the learning of the sound system of another language b) Not affect the learning of the sound system of another language c) Be regarded as irrelevant when learning the sound system of another language.
96. Which of the following is an example of the phonological loop in action? a) Making a memory circle on a piece of paper of how you are going to remember certain phrases. b) Saying a telephone number over and over again in order to keep it in our working memory c) Reading the same book many times in order to get a great understanding of the topic.
97. Which of the following would be a finding which teacher should keep in mind when evaluating the conditions for teaching and learning pronunciation? a) Tongue twisters are a fantastic way to practice pronunciation b) Copying is more difficult that reading aloud from a book c) The written from of a word can affect its pronunciation.
98. The debate about whether native speaker or non-native speaker is the perfect model for pronunciation is which of the following type of issues?
a) Political b) Geographical c) Institutional.
99. A teacher whishing to follow the instructions of Newton and Nation would know it is a good idea to do which of the following when attempting to fit pronunciation into a course a) Regularly set aside a special time. b) Focus on pronunciation only occasionally c) Regularly set aside a special time or focus on pronunciation only ocassio
100. A teacher who follows the same line of thoughts as Nation & Newton would claim that the learner’s first language can…
a) Have a major influence on learning the sound system of another language b) Have no influence on learning the sound system of another language c) Be regarded as irrelevant when learning the sound system of another language.
101 A teacher going along with the notions of Nation and Newton would claim that the most effective way of testing a learner´s pronunciation is….
a) To have on off pronunciation tests.
b) To observe and record the learner performing in a variety of situations. c) To have an end of year pronunciation exam with an external source.
102. Having read Nation & Newton a trainee teacher would know that in regards to pronunciation a) Adults are less likely to pick up the new sound that young children b) Adults are more likely to pick up the new sound that young children c) Adults are just like likely to pick up the new sound that young children.
103. It was said by Flege and Port (1981) that interference from native language on second language occurs at the phonetic level; so, in order to avoid this problema, is advisable to… a) Give attention to features such as voicing or aspiration b) Pay special attention to particular sounds where problems can occur c) Take account of first language sound system and compare it with the one of the target language.
104. According to Nation and Newton a common issue with Word stress is which of the following? a) Interference from the learner`s first language can affect the Word stress b) Word stress is ignored c) Students can say words with the stress in the wrong places.
105.Which of the following would be an accurate explanation by a teacher of what is the phonological loop? a) A series of listening activities. b) An interactive activity c) The brain saying a word or phrase over and over to itself in order to remember it.
106. A teacher should be aware that when planning a listening and speaking programme for beginners, it is important to include... a) Regular “listen and enjoy”activities b) Infrequent “listen and enjoy” activities c) Zero “listen and enjoy” activities.