A __________ (or the sampling frame) is a group of individuals (or a group of organizations) with some common defining characteristic that the researcher can identify and study. a. universe b. target population
Which of the following would ordinarily come first when beginning to collect quantitative data? a. The identification of participants for the study. b. The obtaining of permissions from participants for the study. c. The location and selection of instruments to use that will net useful data for the study.
In the following study, what would be the independent variable in the work? "The impact of adolescent aggression on school climate. a. Adolescent aggression. b. The impact. c. School climate.
Which of the following would be a good number for a correlational study that relates variables? a. 10 b. 35 c. 350.
When thinking about the CONTROL variable we should be asking ourselves which of the following questions? a. What outcomes am I trying to explain? b. What variables or factors influence the outcomes? c. What variables do I also need to measure so that I can make sure that my major factors influence outcomes and not other factors?.
In nonprobability sampling… a. the researcher selects individuals from the population who are representative of that population. b. the researcher selects individuals because they are available, convenient, and represent some characteristic the investigator seeks to study. c. the researcher divides the population on some specific characteristic and the, using simple random sampling. sample from each subgroup of the population.
Which of the following is a very common statistical analysis program which is used by researchers? a. Scopus b. SPSS c. ERIC.
After entering the data into a statistical program you need to determine if there are errors in the data or missing data. This is called… a. Cleaning the database. b. Analysts of the results. c. Descriptive data.
A percentile rank of a particular score is the____________in the distribution with scores at or below a particular score. a. percentage of participants b. middle score c. total of the scores.
When looking at the variability of our data we are using, we are conducting which type of statistics? a. Inferential. b. Descriptive. c. Standardized.
When conducting regressions on our data we are using, we are conducting which type of statistics? a. Inferential. b. Descriptive. c. Standardized.
What are measures of relative standing? a. Summary numbers that represent a single value in a distribution of scores. b. The spread of the scores in a distribution. c. Statistics that describe one score relatives to a group of scores.
What are measures of central tendency? a. Summary numbers that represent a single value in a distribution of scores. b. The spread of the scores in a distribution. c. Statistics that describe one score relative to a group of scores.
Notes made during on-site observations are typically known as… a. research notes. b. primary data notes. c. Field notes.
According to Creswell (2012) observation is a process of gathering open-ended… a. secondhand information by observing people and places at a research site. b. firsthand information by observing people and places at a research site. c. secondary data by observing people and places at a research site.
Participant observation is a procedure used with which type of research? a. Quantitative. b. Qualitative. c. Quantitative and qualitative.
__________is purposeful sampling undertaken after the research begins, to take advantage of unfolding events that will help answer research questions. a. Typical sampling b. Snowball sampling c. Opportunistic sampling.
Which of the following best describes the procedure of purposeful sampling? a. Intentionally selecting individuals and sites to learn or understand the central phenomenon. b. Randomly selecting individuals and sites to learn or understand the central phenomenon. c. Selecting individuals and sites to learn or understand the central phenomenon via a computer programme aimed at avoiding selection biases.
Which of the following types of sampling selects individuals who are representative of the population?
a. Snowball sampling b. Random sampling c. Purposeful sampling .
If you select certain sites or people because they possess a similar trait or characteristic you are deducting which type of sampling? a. Typical sampling. b. Homogeneous sampling. c. Extreme case sampling.
The best way (according to Creswell, 2012) to build trust between the interviewer and interviewee is… a. to compensate the interviewee financially. b. abide by all ethical issues in the interviewing process. c. make sure they interviewer and interviewee are friends and know each other well.
Notes made which record personal thought that researchers have that relate to their insights, hunches, or broad themes or ideas are known as... a. descriptive field notes. b. reflective field notes c. active field notes.
A QUALITATIVE interview should have… a. open-ended questions. b. close-ended questions. c. open or close-ended questions.
A________ in qualitative research consists of exploring the data to obtain a general sense of the data, memoring ideas, thinking about the organization of the data, and considering whether you need more data. a. preliminary exploratory analysis b. text segment c. hand analysis.
Themes that a researcher might expect to find are known as... a. unexpected themes. b. hard-to-classify themes. c. ordinary themes
The process in which the researcher asks one or more participants in the study to check the accuracy of the account is known as… a. member checking b. triangulation. c. external audit.
What is transcription in qualitative research? a. A process of converting audiotape recordings or field notes into text data. b. A way of digitalizing your spoken data into a computer programme. c. A way of turning written data into numerical data which is then analyzed in statistical software such as SPSS.
Which of the following would be a good reason to analyze your qualitative data on a computer rather than by hand? a. You have resources and are adequately trained in the use of computers and computer software. b. You are analyzing a small database. c. Want to be close to the fata and have a hands-on feel for it without the intrusion of a machine.
Codes which are placed the first time you look through the transcript and are few in number are called… a. lean codes. b. descriptive codes c. in vivo codes.
When we reduce the list of codes to get five to seven descriptions it is known as... a. themes b. descriptions. c. descriptive coding.
A qualitative storytelling structure is a __________to writing a qualitative report. a. research paper b. flexible approach c. proposal.
Linking devices are words or phrases that_______ sections of a research report. a. tie together b. split c. link ideas.
Which of the following is one of the most specific shortcomings in quantitative articles highlighted by Creswell (2012)? a. Weaknesses in the research design. b. Poorly conducted field notes. c. The main themes of the research are poorly coded.
In a__________ the researcher includes detailed procedures of inquiry and follows a traditional form for reporting research that includes the introduction, the procedures, the findings, and a discussion. a. quantitative structure b. qualitative scientific structure c. evaluation research.
Which of the following SHOULDN 'T be included in the introduction of a quantitative paper? a. Review of the previous research. b. Statement of the problem. c. Purpose statement.
Which of the following SHOULDN "T be included in the methods section of a quantitative paper? a. Sample and site. b. Procedures of data collection. c. Summary of the major themes.
Which of the following SHOULD be included in the discussion of a quantitative paper? a. Descriptive analysis of all data. b. Inferential analysis to address questions/ hypotheses. c. Overall significance of the study.
Which of the following SHOULDN'T be included in the introduction of a qualitative paper? a. Statement of the problem. b. Research questions. c. Data analysis approach.
According to Creswell (2012) when writing our research report we need to write our reports… a. in a way which is acceptable for our audiences. b. in the most scholarly way possible. c. using our own specific norms and rules.
What does the following describe? "A polished, shorter research report that you send to an editor of a journal." a. A conference proposal. b. An academic paper. c. A thesis.
The typical procedure used in simple random sampling is to assign a number to each individual (or site) in the population and then _________to select the individuals (or sites) for the sample.
a. use a random numbers table b. apply a survey c. input the data.
Quantitative investigators often use a combination of categorical and _____________. a. nonprobability sampling b. nominal scales c. continuous scales.
What is the population in research? a. A group of individuals who have the same characteristic. b. A selection of a group of individuals from a group who have the same characteristic. c. A sample of people from a large group of individuals.
Which of the following would be a good number of participants for an experiment? a. 15 b. 150 c. 1500.
Which of the following is a type of probabilistic sampling? a. Convenience b. Stratified c. Snowball.
Scoring data means that the researcher assigns a (n) ____________ to each response category for each question on the instruments used to collect data. a. value b. order c. color.
What does preparing the data for analysis entail? a. Scoring the data and creating a codebook. b. Reporting the results from the data analysis. c. Comparing the results with past literature.
If we were to ask ourselves: “Is the sample score (e.g., the mean difference between two groups) probably a wrong estimate of the population mean?” which of the following inferential test could we conduct? a. A confidence interval b. Hypothesis testing c. Effect size.
When looking for the central tendency of our data we are using, we are conducting which type of statistics? a. Inferential b. Descriptive c. Standardized.
What are measures of variability? a. Summary numbers that represent a single value in a distribution of scores. b. The spread of the scores in a distribution. c. Statistics that describe one score relative to a group of scores.
What are measures of relative standing? a. Summary numbers that represent a single value in a distribution of scores. b. The spread of the scores in a distribution. c. Statistics that describe one score relative to a group of scores.
___________Is a form of purposeful sampling in which you study an outlier case or one that displays extreme characteristics. a. Statistical significance b. Standard score c. Extreme case sampling.
Keeping a journal during a research study is a method associated with which type of research? a. Quantitative b. Qualitative c. Quantitative and qualitative
An observational protocol is a form designed by the researcher before data collection that is used for__________ during an observation. a. taking field notes b. collecting historical documents c. keep a detailed record of the interview .
Which of the following types of sampling aims to develop a detailed understanding? a. Stratified sampling b. Random sampling c. Purposeful sampling.
Themes that are surprises and not expected to surface during a study are known as… a. unexpected themes b. hard-to-classify themes c. ordinary themes.
When a researcher determines the accuracy or credibility of the findings through strategies such as member checking or triangulation is known as… a. validating findings b. examination c. reflections.
what is the first step in analysing and interpreting your qualitative data? a. Collect and prepare the data for analysis. b. The research obtains a general sense of the material. c. The research codes the data by locating text segments and assigning a code label to them.
The process of corroborating evidence from different individuals, types of data, or methods of data collection in descriptions and themes in qualitative research is known as… a. member checking b. triangulation c. external audit.
Which of the following would be a good reason to analyse your qualitative data by hand rather than on a computer? a. You are analysing a large database. b. You need a close inspection of every word. c. You are analysing a small database.
According to Creswell (2012), qualitative research is…, in which you make a personal assessment as to a description that fits the situation or themes that capture the major categories of information. a. Interpretive b. Inductive c. Deductive.
Qualitative data analysis is … in form, going from the particular or the detailed data to the general codes and themes. a. Deductive b. Inductive c. Interpretive.
Which of the following would not be a suitable question to ask yourself as a researcher when trying to employ appropriate standards in your research work? a. Will the research advance policy discussion in hour region? b. Will the research help address some pressing educational problem? c. Does it matter that I haven’t been completely honest in my result section?.
__________ and writing research is a research that needs to be honestly reported, shared with participants, not previously published, not plagiarized, not influenced by personal interest, and duly credited to authors. a. Qualitative scientific structure. b. Ethnical reporting. c. Bias reduction.
According to Creswell (2012) reviews of the literature are found in which type of research? a. Quantitative. b. Qualitative. c. Quantitative and qualitative.
Which of the following SHOULD be included in the discussion of quantitative paper? a. Descriptive analysis of all data. b. Inferential analysis to address question/hypothesis c. Overall significance of the study.
According to Creswell (2012) research hypothesis are found in which type of research? a. Quantitative. b. Qualitative. c. Quantitative and qualitative.
What does the following describe? "A research report presented to an audience at a state, regional, national, or international conference typically sponsored by a professional association.” a. A conference proposal. b. A conference paper. c. A journal article.
A___________(or the sample frame) is a group of individuals (or group of organizations) with some common defining characteristic that the researcher can identifie and study. a. universe b. target population statistics.
What does reability in a quantitative study entail? a. That the scores from an instrument are stable and consistent. b. The development of sound evidence to demostrate that the test imterpretation matches its proposed use. c. That we have used a good research design.
There are ________ steps in the process of reserach. a. six b. five c. five.
According to Creswell (2012) what is the first step at a general level for somebody looking to conduct some research? a. Pose a question. b. Collect data. Look for subjects.
Wich of the following would be a good reason to analyze your qualitative data by hand rather than on a computer ? a. You are analysing a larga data base. b. You need a close inspection of every word. c. Want to be close to the data and have a hands-on feel for it without the instruction of a machine. .
Themes that contain ideas that do not easily fit into one theme or that overlap with several themes are known as... a. unexpected themes. b. hard-to-classify themes. c. ordinary themes.
Wich of the following would be a good number for a survey study? a. 350 b. 10 c. 35.
In probability sampling... a. the researcher selects individuals because they are abailable, comveniet, and represent some characteristic the investigator seeks to study. b. the researcher asks participants to identifify others to become members of the sample. c. the researcher selcts the individuals fromn the population who are representative of that population. .
What is the minimum number of hyphotesis that we need for hyphotesis testing? a. 2 b. 3 c. 4.