|What is the difference between proper nouns and proper names?:
Proper nouns are impersonal and proper names are personal.
Proper nouns are arbitrary nouns with no definable meaning and proper names
potentially have a more complex structure They are synonyms. Proper nouns refer to one single element within a group and proper names are descriptive labels
which necessarily include one or more proper nouns.
What is NOT a function of personal pronouns? Setting up identity chains by means of anaphora.
Contributing to referential coherence Contributing to textual cohesion.
Maintaining the topic pattern of the discourse.
Which of the following is NOT an experiential type of determination by which referent things can be
particularized in English?:
Defining and particularizing Quantifying and distributing Semi-determinatives Pre- and Post- modifiers.
Which of the following is a definition of a non-finite clause? A clause where the form of the verb chosen reflects the speaker's wish to express tense or modality A clause which is complete in itself, i.e., it does not form part of a larger structure A clause where the form of the verb chosen reflects the speaker's wish not to express tense or
modality A clause which is not integrated into the main clause and adds supplementary information.
Which of the following is a non-assertive word Still Ever Someone Already.
Which of the following statements is NOT true?:
It is more accurate to talk of transitive and intransitive uses of verbs than of transitive and intransitive
A locative is a type of circumstantial adjunct.
Subject complements are required by copular verbs. The more subsidiary an element, the more movable it is in the clause.
What do object complements do?: Characterize direct objects by a relational attribute.
Characterize direct objects by an enhancing attribute Characterize direct objects by an objective attribute.
Characterize direct objects by a qualitative or a substantive attribute.
What is the typical equivalent of the agent in an attribute structure? The experiencer The attribute The carrier The identifier.
Which of the following realizations of the direct object is not possible? Prepositional Phrase Finite Clause Adjectival group Non-finite clause.
What types of element do you leave out in conversation and writing that imitates speech?: Stressed pronouns and determiners. Key non-functional items and lexical words Non-recoverable material. Elements which are recoverable from the interactional context.
In coordinated clauses the second clause is said to expand the first clause by... elaborating it extending it enhancing it linking it.
When is there a Topical Theme?: When Theme conflates with Topic and Subject When Theme is realised by a temporal or spatial Adjunct. When Theme is a fronted Complement.
When Theme is a fronted Object.
Which of the following is NOT a type of experiential Theme?: Epistemic(like certainly) Evidential(like apparently) Evaluative( like surprisingly, surely) Enquiring ( like what , whose.
Which of the following is a marked Theme in a non-declarative clause? Operator+subject (in yes/no interrogatives) Wh-word (in wh-interrogatives) The base form of the verb in 2nd person (in imperatives)
Emphatic "do"( in imperatives).
Finite verbs: Are always marked for modality and tense Are always marked for modality or for tense Always have an overt subject Non of the above are correct.
What does an attribute NOT do?:
Characterize a participant Identify a participant locate a participant in space or time Subsume a participant.
8. An embedded clause does NOT have...: a syntactic relation of dependency with respect to the main one a structure that is often dictated by the verb of the main clause. a semantic function within the main clause.
functional parallelism with adjuncts necessarily.
What is necessary for textual ellipsis to occur?:
Common processes Common function words Common informational patterns Elements in common.
What is the effect of a negative adverb at the beginning of a declarative clause?:
An emphatic, marked efffect A thematical effect A subject-like effect The inversion of the predicator.
How can a recipient and a beneficiary be subjects?:
They cannot be subjects In existential processes In material processes In passive structures.
What is a direct speech act?: a face-to-face communicative act between two people an utterance with a specific addressee a speech act which uses the clause typically associated with it an oral speech act.
What is the role of the Recipient in processes of saying and communicating?:
it is only necessarily required by "tell" it is always an optional constituent it is implicit in every clause it is not part of a core communicative clause.
What do attributive patterns and identifying patterns have in common?: They are both types of relational processes. They are both reversible They are both copular They can both be divided between current and resulting structures.
What is the name of the "doer" in a mental process? agent thinker experiencer phenomenon.
What does the term "enhancing" refer to?
A way of expanding a message by augmenting the content with a positive intention. A way of expanding the meaning of the main clause by providing some circumstantial feature.
A combination of coordination and circumstantial meaning A way of providing discourse context by expressing meanings of simultaneity, sequentiality, condition,
cause-effect, result and concession.
What is the difference between embedding and subordination? Embedding is a type of subordination. They are synonyms Subordination is a type of embedding.
What does transferred negation consist of?
Displacing the negative element from its logical place in the main clause to negate the
verb in the reported/subordinate clause Displacing the negative element from its logical place in the reported/subordinate clause
to negate the verb in the main clause The use of an assertive word with a non-assertive sense.
what is a supplementive unit A subordinate unit that is not embedded An embedded unit that is not subordinate A type of subordinate embedded unit.
what is the illocutionary force of a declarative in a direct speech act? a declaration an utterance a statement.
What does the term "explicit performative" refer to?
The ability of some clause types to carry out certain acts by naming them The marked presence of the speech act as a subordinate clause. The transfer of the performing term from its logical place to the dependent clause.
What is embedding? A kind of subordination by which a clause functions as a constituent of another clause or group.
A relationship of correspondence between the class of a unit and its function.
A recursive structure where a clause is the modifier of a larger clause.
why is the PP not a group? Because there are two obligatory elements instead of one the PP is a group Because the head( the prep.) has little or no meaning.
Which of the following statements about object complements is true? The OC adds information about the referent of a DO in the form of an attribute The OC refers to a different participant from that of the DO. The OC may occur both in ditransitive clausal structures and in copular ones after the
What is an actualized participant? A participant that appears in an active and dynamic process.
A participant that is explicitly mentioned in the message A participant that plays a primary syntactic role (subject).
What semantic role does the direct object have in the sentence "He headed the ball into the net"?
Affected Instrument Phenomenon.
Which of the following sentences is a pseudo-intransitive?
The glass broke the lamp when it fell.
Glass breaks easily The glass was broken.
What is "for you to go by train" in "The best plan is for you to go by plane"? An attributive complement. The predicate An identifying complement.
What is the term used to indicate that a sentential element has been transferred from its normal
position in the Rheme to initial position?
What can directives be used for? (provide the best answer)
Requests Instructions Invitations All of the above.
What is the interpersonal meaning?
The type of meaning encoded as questions, statements, offers, reminders, thanks, etc. The meaning that has to do with the content of the message The meaning of an organized message in relation to what precedes it in the discourse.
The type of meaning that is implicit in the mutual hierarchical relationship between two or more
Which of the following statements about that-clauses in English is true?
They can be combined with conjunctions or prepositions They take one function or another depending on the preposition they follow. They form one syntactic unit with whatever functional word precedes them.
They do not follow prepositions.
Which of the following sentences has a nominal relative?
He asked what we should do.
Pat wondered whether her friends would recognize her.
I told her how sorry I was. He told me what I already knew.
What is the unmarked correlation between Given-New and Theme-Rheme?
Given coincides with the Theme and New with part of the Rheme. Given coincides with the Rheme and New with part of the Theme. Given coincides with New and the Theme with part of the Rheme Given coincides with part of New and the Theme with the Rheme.
Why are long subject clauses (like "That you are going on holidays to Tokyo" in "That you are going on
holidays to Tokyo pleases me") usually avoided?
Because they violate the end-weight principle Because they sound infantile Because they are ungrammatical Because the Rheme is preferably occupied by the Agent-Subject in statements.
Which of the following factors does NOT favour that the complementiser ‘that’ is retained in the
clause? When the subject in the that- clause refers to a different entity than the subject of the main clause.
When the head of the subject of the that- clause is a noun When there are two or more coordinated that- clauses.
When the main clause is in the active voice.
When it co-occurs with verbs such as 'think' and 'say'. When the subject refers to the same entity in the main clause
and in the that-clause. When it co-occurs with verbs such as 'think' and 'say'. When there is a noun head rather than a pronoun in the
subject of the that-clause.
When is omission of the complementiser 'that' NOT favoured With verbs such as "say".
When there is a noun rather than a pronoun head in that that-clause. When the main clause and the that-clause share the subject. When the main clause is in the active voice.
What is "in the drawer" in "I put the towels in the drawer"?
an adjunct a locative element an object complement a disjunct.
Which of the following sentences contains a wh interrogative clause realising the subject element?
That he failed the driving test surprised everybody. Why the library was closed for months was not explained. What he said shocked me How thy lived was remarkable.
An embedded clause does NOT have...:
a syntactic relation of dependency with respect to the main one.
a structure that is often dictated by the verb of the main clause.
a semantic function within the main clause. functional parallelism with adjuncts necessarily.
Which of the following sentences contains an evaluative adjunct? Obviously, she´ll rely on you According to the weather forecast, it will rain today Unfortunately, our team didn´t win Furthermore, might call a doctor.
Which of the following features is included in the notion of agency?
animacy intention force description.
What semantic role does the direct object have in the sentence "I felt a sudden pain in my arm"? affected instrument phenomenon recipient.
Where is the preposition located when it is "stranded"? right before the prepositional complement displaced from its position in the PP right after the preposition complement towards the end of the sentence.
what is a statement a type of illocutionary structure a type of clause s type of speech act ll of the above.
Which of the following clauses are causative?
smoking can damage your health they spread the crops with insecticide pain and worry wrinkled his brow the photographer brought the camera .
How can we NOT obtain evidence to identify the constituents within a clause? wh-questions clefting passivization rhematization.
Which of the following sentences contains a Beneficiary? Don´t forget to send us a postcard My brother has been offered a job Can I get you something to eat? How much do we owe your parents for the tickets?.
What is 'after having waited for 1 hour' in 'After having waited for 1 hour, I walked away'? a complex clause an embedded clause a coordinate clause a subordinate clause.
Which of the following clauses contains an Existent which represents an event?
There appeared on the horizon a large ship. There was an explosion and all the lights went out.
On the floor there lay a pile of blankets. There is no time to lose; the bus will be here in no time.
Which of the following sentences has an Agentive subject?
She writes comedies for television
the bird died of cold the housewife was attacked by the burglar many buildings collapsed during the earthquake.
Which of the following criteria may help distinguish Recipients from Beneficiaries?
The role they play in wh-cleft structures. The preposition in their respective prepositional paraphrase Whether they are direct objects or indirect objects.
They are synonyms.
Which of the following sentences contains a subject that is not a participant but a mere subject filler? It rained heavily last night I can lend you ten pounds. Will it be enough? Her baby is due next month and she knows it is a boy.
Where's the car? It's in the garage.
Do you say in English: 'It's I' or 'It's me'? it´s me it´s I neither, the correct form is: "I am" Both; it depends on the register.
Which of the following are NOT conditions to be satisfied by a 'highly transitive' verb? it refers to an action it is punctual it is volitional it involves one participant.
What is an operator-related adjunct in CFG?
A type of circumstantial adjunct.
A type of stance adjunct.
Adverbs and adverbial groups which appear near the finite operator. A type of connective adjunct.
What is a topical theme? When the main referent persists throughout a stretch of text. What the whole text or discourse is about. When the theme conflates with the topic and the subject.
When the theme is unmarked, so it coincides with the expected element.
When is the semantic valency of a verb not the same as its syntactic valency? they always coincide When the subject is not a participant when there are optional elements in the clause, like adjuncts they are typically different.
How is experiential meaning encoded in the grammar? In terms of participants, processes, and circumstances It is encoded by the mood structures.
It helps the speakers to organize and relate individual sentences and utterances within their discourse It is encoded by transitivity/intransitivity.
Why can some verbs of movement function as pure intransitive or be followed by a Locative/Goal
complement? It depends on the support of the context. It depends on the primary meaning of the verb It depends on the speaker's communicative force It depends on whether the structure can be inferred by the interlocutor.
Which of the following is NOT a cognitive feature of the Topic?
It is inherent to the event described. It is high in the empathy hierarchy.
It is easily accessible and is definite. It is the least salient participant on the scene of discourse.
What is 'over there' in 'The Statue of Liberty is over there' according to SFG? Cloc Cs PC Co.
Which element leads the empathy hierarchy? the speaker the hearer a physical object an abstract entity.
What is "forty-five years old" in "I'm forty-five years old"? an attribute complement a predicate complement an identifying complement an object complement.
What type of structure is: "Theme+Rheme"? experiential interpersonal textual referential.
The following is NOT a type of semantic role: process participant attribute adjunct+circumstances.
Which of the following statements is true? all grammatical independent clauses are finite non-finite clauses do not have overt subjects non-finite clauses are tensed all grammatically independent clauses have modality.
which of the following is NOT a closed class? prepositions adverbs pronouns articles.
What is the most common type of modifier found in a PP? the complement an adverb of degree an evaluative adjective another preposition.
Which of the following relations is NOT used to expand linguistic units? coordination ellipsis subordination embedding.
Which of the following are limited in number in any one clause?
adjuncts objects punctuation only the subject.
What type of adjunct is there in "Obviously, he'll rely on you even more now"? circumstantial stance connective locative.
Which of the following passives is wrong?
I was given two options My bed has been slept in by Goldilocks a great time was had by all the children I was carried from one place to another.
Which of the following sentences has an Agent for a subject? Jim kicked the ball into the net.
the ball was kicked into the net the storm caused a lot of damage the secretary was given little work.
What is 'to my bank manager' in 'I gave the document to my bank manager'?
a direct object an indirect object a prepositional complement an object complement.
Which of the following sentences has a direct object that is an Affected?
I felt a pain in my arm We experienced sheer joy at the news. She placed the ball next to the net They used a lamp to lighten the room.
How can a Beneficiary be distinguished from a Recipient? By the proposition, each of them takes in their corresponding prepositional paraphrases. Most Recipients do not easily become subject in a passive clause.
The Recipient is the 'intended Beneficiary'. They are equivalent concepts.
Which of the following is NOT a criterion for distinguishing phrasal verbs from prepositional verbs? position stress transitivity adverb insertion.
What is the semantic difference between 'blame someone for something' and 'blame something on
someone'? The preposition requires different complements The more central of the two participants is placed first The object of the action is only reflected in the former sentences None.
Which of the following sentences has a current attribute? the heat turned the milk sour the barking dog is driving me mad they presumed her dead she appointed him president.
Which of the following sentences contains a factor leading to the omission of 'that'? Many people believe that big is best and that war is right.
It is believed that peace is in sight. Can you prove to the committee that the effects are not harmful? Tim told us that he would do what he had planned.
Which of the following sentences contains an embedded exclamative?
Be careful or else! What a wonderful view! I told him how sorry we were How kind of you that was!.
What type of meanings is expressed by -ing clauses as complements?
Events in which an end-point is included.
Events in which an end-point is not included.
Factual meanings Non-factual meanings.
What is 'our box' in 'The child opened the box'?
agent force affected phenomenon.
What is the Theme in 'By noon the rocket will have reached the Moon, but not Mars'? by noon the rocket the moon Mars.
What type of structure is 'Subject+Finite+Predicator+Object+Adjunct' , according to Systemic Functional
Grammar? Experiential Interpersonal textual referential.
Which of the following is a type of semantic role?
operator vocative attribute adjunct.
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
Grammatically independent clauses may be non-finite. Non-finite clauses may have overt subjects. Non-finite clauses can be tensed.
Some grammatically independent clauses have modality.
Which of the following is NOT an open class?
prepositions=b+c+d+adverbs adverbs nouns verbs.
What is the difference between a no-negation and a not-negation? The no-form is more emphatic or suited to writing or formal spoken English. The not-form is less ambiguous and focused on the non-assertive part of the clause.
In questions either alternative is possible except when the negative item is part of the subject. None.
Which of the following relations is used to expand linguistic units? marked word order ellipsis subordination+coordination+embedding there are no relations that fulfill that purpose.
Which of the following is NOT a type of complement in English according to Systemic Functional
subject object prepositional predicate.
What type of adjunct is there in 'Queen Elizabeth sails tomorrow from Wales'?
circumstantial stance connective locative.
Which of the folllowing sentences contains a (proto)typical direct object? I have two cars It costs two euros This box contains clothes I bought the box.
Which of the following sentences has a direct object that is an instrument?
I felt a pain in my arm He gave the door a push She placed the ball next to the net They used a lamp to brighten the room.
Which of the following sentences contains a Beneficiary?
She lent me a CD The doctor gave the patient some tablets Mary is teaching the students maths Susan left me a note .
Which of the following statements about phrasal verbs is true? The particle is unstressed The adverbial particle can be fronted for rhetorical purposes.
They normally admit an adverb between the verb and the particle. They are intransitive.
What is the semantic difference between 'We supply the school with paper' and 'We supply paper to
The preposition requires different complements. The more central of the two participants is placed first The object of the action is only reflected in the former sentences. None.
Which of the following does not correspond to a type of speech act?
statements questions exclamations Imperatives.
How do we call an interrogative clause that starts with an operator where yes/no is not an appropriate
answer? a wh-question an alternative interrogative an embedded interrogative clause a question tag.
Which of the following sentences does NOT contain a subjunctive? if he was on duty, it is still to be explored.
if I were a rich man, I wouldn't be happier So be it lt is appropriate that she debate this issue with her advisors.
What is the semantic role of the Direct Object in 'I don't understand his motives'? Experiencer Cause phenomenon ergative.
What is the Rheme in 'We did a lot of sightseeing in London last week'? Last week In London last week A lot of sightseeing in London last week Did a lot of sightseeing in London last week.
What is "forty-five years old" in "l'm forty-five years old"? an attribute complement a predicate complement an identifying complement an object complement.
In which major way are circumstantial complements different from subject complements? The type of information they provide. The former co-occur with predicative verbs and the latter with copular verbs The former represent a new participant in the clause and the latter do not Circumstantial complements occur in the predication and subject complements may occur in the
What is "In London" in the clause: "In London, we did a lot of sightseeing"?
unmarked theme unmarked rheme marked theme marked rheme.
Which of the following about textual ellipsis is true? Catenative verbs which take to-infinitive clauses do not retain the 'to' and the rest of the clause is
The ellipted element always occurs at the end of the clause. The ellipted utterance must be recoverable from a previous utterance by the same speaker. Textual ellipsis occurs when two consecutive clauses have elements in
Passives omit the Agent when it is ... anaphorically predictable predictable by general knowledge relevant at that point in the discourse necessary to reveal private information.
How can one abbreviate the following clause: "If you can't do it, I very much doubt whether I can do it"? If you can't do it, I very much doubt whether I can do
If you can't do it, I very much doubt whether I can
If you can't do it, I very much doubt whether I
If you can't do it, I very much doubt whether
What is generally true about get-passive structures? They convey a more formal flavour or register They potentially reflect speakers' involvement.
They are more common in writing than in speech. They grammaticalize objective meaning.
What participants are there in the clause "Glass breaks easily"?
agent force affected affected+manner.
What participants are there in the clause "Will you get me a drink"? agent+affected+force agent+beneficiary+affected unactualised affected+recipient+agent agent+recipient+affected.
What participants are there in the clause "My mom told my sister a secret"?
sayer+recipient+said agent+beneficiaty+carrier affected+force+existent experiencer+beneficiary+phenomenon.
Which of the following clauses has a Range? I had an argument with my girlfriend.
I asked the teacher for a pencil.
We went to the restaurant for a meal We swam in the sea for an hour.
What is the difference between "Teide is the highest mountain in Spain" and "The highest mountain in
Spain is Teide"? The former clause corresponds to an Identified-Identifier structure and the latter to an
Identifier-Identified one. The former clause corresponds to an Identifier-Identified structure and the latter to an
Identified-Identifier one. The latter is stylistically inferior with respect to the farmer clause.
They are identical in all respects.
Which of the following is NOT a type of material process? doing happening causing relating.
Which of the following is a leading question with an attitudinal marker? Have you ever thought of this my way?
Are you sure or unsure?
She knows all about it, of course? Did they complain about the new regulation?.
Which is the basic clause type?
the declarative the echo question a question tag a finite structure.
Which of the following patterns is complex-transitive?
they asked him to come I wrote a poem for her We elected Macrom president You lent the tool to us.
Which of the following statements about Adjuncts is true? Circumstantial adjuncts are identical to Locatives Connective adjuncts provide an attitudinal comment by the speaker on the content of the clause.
Evidential adjuncts signal how the speaker intends the semantic connections to be made between one
part of the discourse and another.
Adjuncts are optional elements of a situation expressed by a clause.
Phrasal-prepositional verbs ... are particularly characteristic of formal English consist of a phrasal verb followed by a prepositional verb. are fossilized in the language and new combinations are hardly ever coined.
can be seen in: "We ran up against difficulties" and "They have done away with free school
Which of the following sentences does NOT contain a direct object? It cost a pound.
Does she resemble her dad?
The letter was written with this pen.
That colour doesn't suit you.
Which of the following sentences does not contain an Attributive? she went pale she stayed calm she got me to work she drives me mad.
Which of the following statements is NOT true? Dependent clauses may be finite or non-finite.
All grammatically independent clauses are finite. Finite clauses have tense or modality.
Non-finite clauses do not have a subject.
Which of the following is NOT a speech act? a statement a declarative an exclamation a directive.
What is a direct speech act in Systemic Functional Grammar?
declaratives A conversation or dialogue situation between two or more speakers.
When a speech act has the force of an illocutionary act.
When a clause type is used to carry out the speech act typically associated
What is the central part in most situation types?
the key defining circumstances the attribute the participant the process.
Which is NOT a characteristic feature of pseudo-intransitives? They express a general property or propensity of the entity to undergo (or not) the process in question. They tend to occur in the past tense.
A cause is implied but an Agent cannot be added in a by-phrase. There is no corresponding transitive construction that exactly expresses the same meaning as them.
Which participant intervenes in the following clause: "The Prime Minister resigned"? agent force affected goal.
Which participants intervene in the following clause: "The glass got broken"? agent force affected goal.
Which participants intervene in the following clause: "They made the road wider"? agent+process+affected agent+recipient+affected agent+process+attribute agen+affected+attribute.
Which type of mental process is NOT distinguished in Systemic Functional Grammar?
cognition perception affectivity dubitativity.
What can existential processes do? (choose the best answer) Merely state that things exist The above plus specify the quantification of something. The two above plus specify the location of something. The three above plus specify the speaker's affective perception on his/her own utterance.
What type of process appears in "The baby has blue eyes"?
relational material existential mental.
What phenomenon can be seen in "Now Manchester United, their players have been holding up a
banner"? left-dislocation right-dislocation absolute theme double subject.
Which is a conventional speech act for an imperative clause?
order statement hedge performative explicit performative.
Which of the following segments of discourse provide evidence of Tapie continuity? where are you? I´m here where are you? here I´m where are you? here where are you? You are there.
What type of clause is “has she” in “She hasn’t designed a new gadget, has she? supplementive verbless abbreviated matrix.
Which of the following verbs cannot be an operator per se? primary modal do lexical.
Which of the following statements about non-assertiveness is true? it is related to factual meaning it is related to the subjunctive and the imperative it is related to non-fulfillment or potentiality Unlike assertiveness, it is conveyed by determiners, pronouns, and adverbs.
What is the effect of anticipatory ‘it’ as opposed to an initial heavy subject?
it is less formal it is more formal It is ungrammatical unless preceded by ‘the fact’. It is preferred in written English.
Which of the following statements about the indirect object is FALSE? it can be realised by a NG It can be realised by a wh-nominal clause. it can be realised by a PP It can be realised as a pronoun in the objective case.
Which of the following statements about the indirect object is FALSE? it can be left unexpressed if omitted, the grammaticality of the clause is typically affected it has prepositional paraphrases Sometimes it can become the subject in a passive clause.
Which of the following statements about English moods is true? Mood has to do with verb inflection rather than clauses types. The subjunctive is not a clause type but a verb form which is marginal today in British English, in
comparison with American English. In independent clauses, wishes are always expressed by the indicative in fossilised stereotyped
expressions mood and modality refer to the same syntactic verbal phenomenon.
In SFG, what is the term far the kind of meaning expressed by semantic
roles? interpersonal meaning representational meaning textual meaning semantic meaning.
According to SFG:
The clause is the highest and most complete unit of discourse analysis.
The clause is a sequence of two or more obligatory groups and phrases All grammatically independent clauses are finite. Grammatically independent clauses may be finite or non-finite.