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How effects work/Absoption and distribution of substances

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How effects work/Absoption and distribution of substances


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pA2 It is the negative logarithm of the antagonist concentration that reduces the effect of the double agonist concentration on the effect of a single It is the logarithm of the concentration of the antagonist, which halves the effect of the agonist. It is a measure of the agonist's effectiveness. Expressed in concentration units. It depends on which agonist we use to determine it.
What does NOT apply to pA2? is equal to the negative logarithm of the concentration that halves the effect of the double agonist concentration measure the strength of the antagonist is equal to the negative logarithm of that concentration of antagonist that reduces the effect of the double agonist concentration on the effect of the enema is equal to the negative logarithm of the dissociation constant is measured in isolated organs.
Concentration to which 50% of the receptors are occupied is directly proportional to the dissociation constant of the active substance of the receptor the premium is proportional to affinity calculated with the Schild equation is proportional to intrinsic efficiency.
Which statement about the EC50 is NOT valid? This receptor is inversely proportional to agonist affinity It is the concentration of agonist that causes a maximum average effect. It can be determined from the curve of the relationship between the concentration of agonist and its effect. It is directly proportional to the affinity of the receptor agonist. It is expressed in units of concentration.
If A has an ED50 greater than B means that we need to give once again A to get efficacy B that B is more potent and therefore more effective than A that A is partial and B is a complete agonist all claims are correct no claim is correct.
Considering the effect of pH on urinary excretion, it would be correct to say that: Urinary acidification accelerates the elimination of weak acids and bases. Urinary calcification accelerates the elimination of weak acids and bases. Acidification of urine accelerates the elimination of weak acids. Urinary calcification accelerates the elimination of weak acids. Urinary calcification has no effect on the excretion of weak bases.
7.- Bioavailability is defined as the percentage of active substance ingested that: It is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract Achieve systemic circulation actively. It crosses the blood brain barrier. It is not bound to plasma proteins. It is distributed in the target tissue.
Rectal route of the application: Provides approximately 100% bioavailability. Used only to achieve local effects. It is suitable for sick people and with vomiting It has a high rate of first-pass metabolism. Used for the application of nitroglycerin.
Transition of active substances through the blood-brain barrier: It is provided if the fraction of the active substance in the ionized form is high. It is faster for substances with low lipid solubility. Occurs more rapidly in the chemoreceptor activation zone. It is reduced in the inflammation of the brain envelopes: meninges. e) It is faster with aminoglycoside antibiotics.
The calculated volume of distribution, which is greater than the volume of all the water in the body, is more likely to occur in substances that are: Very large molecules. Largely linked to plasma proteins. Substances that are mainly due to the inactivation of the first pass. Very soluble in lipids or. Fat They have a high proportion of ionized form. they are highly ionized.
The active substances are absorbed more quickly through the cells in: GIT gastrointestinal tract. Renal / renal tubules. Vascular endothelium or. vascular endothelium Pulmonary parenchyma. The liver.
Union of active substances to plasma albumin: It is usually irreversible. It is satiating. It is the most important for the basic ingredients. Accelerates the metabolism of the active substance. Accelerate the elimination of the active substance.
Most of the active substances are absorbed through the cell membranes of the intestine through the following processes: Diffusion through lipids. Pinocytosis Diffusion through water pores. Transport mediated by carrier Ionic traps.
What substance is absorbed by the phenylalanine membrane transporter? Insulin Propranolol Levodopa Aspirin - acetylsalicylic acid. Penicillin.
Application of transdermal active substance: It is most suitable for substances that are highly polar. It is not the first-pass hepatic metabolism. Provides rapid and complete absorption. Only used to achieve local effects It is best suited for people who are unconscious.
16.- Transdermal drug application Used only for local infections It is more suitable for highly polar drugs. It is not subject to first-pass metabolism through the liver. It is best suited for unconscious patients. Provides rapid and complete absorption.
The medicine has a pKa of 4.5. In the stomach, iin in the intestine will be absorbed almost equally It will be absorbed more in the intestine than in the stomach. It will be better absorbed in the stomach than in the intestine. The value of pKa has no effect on absorption. The information given is not sufficient to conclude on absorption.
The general name of the process by which the amount of active drug that comes after absorption in the systemic circulation is reduced is: First step metabolism Excretion Distribution Elimination Binds to proteins.
The enterohepatic circulation of the drug leads to: A: Filled with peripheral compartments. B: Increases in plasma concentration. C: More accurate dosage D: Avoid the liver and, therefore, to a minor biotransformation. E: Faster elimination of the drug. Affirmations A and B are correct C and D are correct Claims D and E are correct All claims are correct No claim is correct.
The volume of distribution is large for (several possible combinations): A: A drug highly soluble in water B: strongly lipid soluble drugs C: medicines that bind strongly to plasma proteins D: large doses of medication E: small free space It's correct... B and D A, C and E B and C A, B and D D and E.
Which of the following statements is correct? strong bases are well absorbed in the small intestine slowing the blood flow in the splanchnic area allows more time for absorption and, therefore, accelerates it Sublingual medication administration prevents first-pass metabolism all weak acids are rapidly absorbed in the stomach medications should be administered orally only if they are to be absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract.
Which pharmacological cells are the easiest to cross? vascular endothelium GIT renal tubules liver of the lung parenchyma.
For all biotransformation processes, the following applies: An inactive form produces an active metabolite. A large proportion of the drug is inactivated in the first passage through the liver. Biotransformation products are excreted through the kidneys. Biotransformation products are inactive. Biotransformation products are more polar than the original compounds.
Rapidly degradable drugs in the liver should not be administered rectally; Medications given rectally are first absorbed in the liver after absorption. Both statements are correct and causally related. The first claim is correct, the second is false. Both statements are correct, not causally related. The first claim is incorrect, the second is. No claim is correct.
The active substance that metabolizes hepatic cytochromes P450 is mainly found in: smooth endoplasmic reticulum the cell nucleus mitochondria cytoplasm plasma membrane.
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