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The Industrial Revolution

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The Industrial Revolution

UNIT 04 - 4º ESO - Bilingüe


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The mechanisation of agriculture resulted in a rural exodus, with many peasants moving into the cities to look for work in factories. rural exodus industrial exodus proletarian exodus British exodus.
The Industrial Revolution began in EE UU because of the right combination of factors. True False.
The Industrial Revolution began because of the right combination of factors. Some of the main reasons were... (Choose the right ones) improved transport the existence of an entrepreneurial bourgeoisie the American Revolution a former Agricultural Revolution the loss of the 'Domestic System' a demographic revolution the capability of technical innovation a vast colonial empire the fall of the English parliamentary monarchy the beginning of the French Revolution.
The ‘Agricultural Revolution’, led by Great Britain, consisted of technical advances and changes to the system of land ownership. True False.
The crop cultivation system based on constant crop rotation, including fodder crops for livestock was called... Enclosures Acts Triennial rotation system Norfolk four-course system Enlightenment Acts.
Thanks to the Norfolk four-course system, the amount of livestock dropped and provided more manure as fertiliser, as well as meat and milk, which improved human nutrition by increasing protein consumption. True False.
Agricultural activities experienced serious transformations. They consisted of technical advances and changes to the system of social estates political access factories land ownership.
The old open-field system, with large fields shared by the community, was very productive. True False.
Large English landowners pushed for the ... (1845) to turn common land into private property, making it obligatory to fence, or enclose. Enclosures Acts Open field system Mixed field system Division Acts.
As a result of the new land ownership system, many poor peasants who did not have money to make fences had to sell their land to aristocrats, bourgeois and rich peasants, and become wage workers or emigrate to cities to look for industrial jobs. True False.
Who was the creator of the Norfolk four-course system? Thomas Newcomen Charles Townshend James Watt Edmond Cartwright.
The seed drill, designed by in 1730, allowed seeds to be quickly sown and required only 2 men to do the work that would normally be done by 70 people in a day. Thomas Newcomen Jethro Tull James Watt Edmond Cartwright.
The European population, especially in Britain, grew in the 18th century due to the Industrial Revolution and the so-called... ‘demographic revolution’ ‘transport revolution’ ‘textile revolution’ ‘railway revolution’.
The main cause of the population growth was a decrease in birth. This decrease was initially driven by improvements to nutrition, thanks to agricultural processes and the decline of major epidemics. True False.
Another population growth factor was relate to the progress in urban hygiene and medicine. urban hygiene living conditions in cities the proletarian neighbourghoods rural technical improvements.
For the demographic revolution, the birth rate remained high, causing a large natural population growth. True False.
Domestic trade intensified thanks to the improvement of road surfaces and the construction of . new neighbourghood machines factories canals.
Foreign trade, in turn, driven by the dominant British colonialism, reached a global level, and provided the industry with capital, ... such as cotton, and markets to sell their products. raw materials ships slaves proletarian workers.
The growth of financial means was another favourable factor for the Industrial Revolution. Profits from commerce and land were used to finance the most prosperous industrial sectors (... , textile and steel). Moreover, the number of banks increased considerably. mining trade factories banks.
The availability of ..., such as coal, and raw materials were crucial for the development of industry. banks proletarian workforce energy sources manufacturing.
There were several inventions, one of which was the steam engine, patented in 1769 by ... James Watt Edmond Cartwright Thomas Newcomen Henry Cort.
The inventor of the first useful steam engine was the Englishman Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729), who built a steam pump to extract water from mines. True False.
In the Ancien Régime, industrial production was done in small factories. In these workshops, specialised artisans worked using manual tools and sold their products in their own shops. True False.
Workshops were substituted by factories, which were large buildings with many workers and machines powered by a common power supply. This transformation was possible thanks to the use of new techniques and a new ... division of labour triangular trade social division polical system.
The new division of labour consisted of separating the work process into dierent phases, or simple tasks, and assigning each worker a specific task. True False.
The new division of labour allowed tasks to be done by professional labourers with the help of machines. True False.
The new ... and the division of labour enabled production to become faster, more abundant and cheaper, and replaced skilled and creative labour with routine and unskilled labour. political system techniques trade routes markets.
The first industries to apply machinery in order to mass-produce products were the textile and ... industries. chemist food steel ship.
Technical innovations in the textile sector were driven by an increase in the demand for ... fabrics, a consequence of population growth. silk linen cotton wool.
Self-acting spinning mule enabled the fabric-manufacturing processes to be synchronised. It was patented by ... in 1785 James Watt Edmond Cartwright Thomas Newcomen Henry Cort.
In 1830, Richard Roberts patented the first automatic self-acting spinning mule which allowed multiple threads to be spinned. James Watt Edmond Cartwright Richard Roberts Henry Cort.
The large size of textile machines helped consolidate the factory system, and the use of steam allowed factories to be located in ... Moreover, cotton fabric became more popular than linen and wool, and British production grew exponentially and spread throughout the world. cities countryside other parts of the colonial empire small counties.
The Bessemer process was the first method for the mass-production of steel. The air was forced through the molten iron to remove impurities. True False.
The Bessemer process was the first method for the mass-production of ... The air was forced through the molten iron to remove impurities. coal aluminium nickel steel.
... improved iron production by inventing techniques to convert pig iron into wrought iron, making it more resistant (puddling) and to better cast it (rolling). Henry Cort Thomas Newcomen Richard Roberts George Stephenson.
The Industrial Revolution spread from Great Britain to other countries. The pace at which it spread varied due to different factors: (choose the right ones) the amount of natural resources (coal, iron and cotton) existence of powerful monarchy the amount of capital the amount of open-field territories population growth product demand a high mortality rate political situation a mercantilism economy a strong nobility.
The first countries to adopt industrialisation in around ... were the ones closest to England (France, Belgium, Switzerland and Germany), or those with close ties to England (the United States). 1763 1767 1815 1830 .
France had several positive factors, such as vast land areas for growing cotton; mining resources; high demand, due to domestic growth and immigration; and the railway. True False.
In France, except for some northerm areas, its production consisted of traditional items for the country’s still predominantly rural society. True False.
Germany began promoting new industries starting in 1820 thanks to the coal mines in the regions of Ruhr, Saarland and Upper Silesia. But, the main push came after the creation of the Zollverein in 1834, which was a ... that included Prussia and the central and southern German states. huge factory system customs union alliance with Great Britain colonial empire .
The second wave of countries to industrialise began from ... onwards. They lacked technological development, had poor natural resources, little demand and investment, and were geographically far from the main international trading hubs. 1850 1900 1830 1815.
In Europe, industrialisation first spread to Great Britain’s neighbouring countries, where new machines were implemented and the textile and metallurgical sectors were developed. However, Great Britain remained the industrial leader throughout the second half of the 19th century. True False.
Applying the steam engine to transport led to the creation of the ... and the railway. plane steamboat bycicle car.
Transporting goods and people was done faster and cheaper, and load capacity increased by applying the steam engine to ... politics transport mining new buildings.
The steamboat was invented in 1807, when ... applied the steam engine to boats. Robert Fulton Edmond Cartwright Richard Roberts Henry Cort.
From 1830-1860 on, countries began to modify their ports and build large canals between oceans to facilitate shipping. An example of one of these canals is the Suez Canal (1859-1869). True False.
Industrialisation led to a new stage of capitalism, known as ..., which slowly substituted the previous commercial capitalism. industrialised mercantilism industrial liberalism mercantilism industrial capitalism.
The railway was developed when the locomotive was invented. The first railways were developed in Great Britain and used to transport goods between mines and ports on short-distance, level tracks. A locomotive capable of going up slopes, first used in 1830 on the Manchester-Liverpool line was invented by ... in 1829 George Stephenson Jethro Tull Robert Fulton Edmond Cartwright.
The first industries were small and were financed by individual or family capital, but as they grew, they demanded greater investments. In order to obtain these investments, they pushed for limited partnerships, in which partners provided capital and others administered it; and public limited companies whose capital was divided into small amounts, called ... shares profits parts pieces.
The increase in these types of companies gave rise to the creation of ... markets, or the stock exchange, where shares were bought and sold by public limited companies, it also led to an increase in the number of banks, which invested their client's money in credits to companies, in businesses and in buying stock from industries. finance capital profit stock.
Since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, countries began to be measured by their economic power instead of their geographical size or military strength. True False.
Industrialisation led to a division between industrialised or developed countries, which began to control the world, and non-industrialised or developing countries that became dependent on industrialised countries. True False.
The political revolutions and the Industrial Revolution led to a new class system, where social differences were based on personal merit, measured by ... religion honor wealth lineage .
In the new open society, the dominant class included the bourgeoisie and the former nobility, which kept its property. The dominated class was made up of the ... (industrial workers) and peasants. profiteer proletariat commoners liberals.
The proletariat lived in good and sanitary housing, where families were crowded into small spaces. Many lacked furniture and the whole family slept on the floor, on mattresses made of straw. True False.
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