|In the kingdom of Castilla, the monarchy was unitary whereas in the kingdom of Aragon it was federal. True False.
In the 13th century, the city of ... became one of the most important centres of cultural development in Europe. Cordoba Toledo Madrid Sevilla.
During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, the peninsular Christian states were consolidated as kingdoms. ... and Aragón extended their territory to the south, taking advantage of the Muslims’ internal problems. Castilla León Navarra Granada.
Castilla and León became consolidated into a single kingdom in ..., when Fernando III definitively united both territories that, until then, had gone through a number of periods of union and separation. 1212 1248 1230 1236.
In the 13th century, after the defeat of the Almohads at , Extremadura and the Guadalquivir Valley were incorporated, where Fernando III conquered Córdoba (1236), Jaén (1246) and Sevilla (1248). Alarcos Alpujarras Las Navas de Tolosa Aljubarrota.
Fernando III's son, Alfonso X, added new territories: added Cádiz (1265) and the kingdom of ... Murcia Granada Toledo Sevilla.
Aragón and ... were united between 1076 and 1135. Navarra León Valencia Naples.
Aragón and the Catalan counties were united under the Crown of Aragón and Navarra remained an independent kingdom. True False.
The Crown of Aragón was formed in 1137 after the marriage of Isabel, heir to Aragón, to Ramón Berenguer IV, count of Barcelona. True False.
Alfonso X the ... (1221-1284). Conquered Cádiz and Murcia and carried out signiﬁcant cultural works. Battler Conqueror Cunning Wise.
Alfonso I the Battler (1073-1134), King of Aragón and Navarra, conquered ..., Tarazona and Daroca. Zaragoza Toledo Granada Córdoba.
Jaime I the Conqueror (1208-1276) conquered Mallorca and Valencia and incorporated them as new kingdoms into the Crown of ... Castilla Navarra Aragón Granada.
After separating from Aragón, Navarra underwent attempts at annexation by Castilla and Aragón. In order to avoid annexation, in the middle of the 13th century it formed ties with ... via matrimonial alliances. England France Naples Turkey.
Portugal became independent from León in 1143, and it initiated its own territorial expansion towards the south. True False.
The Crown of Aragón had their own institutions, laws and customs. In addition, the kings had less authority because of the imposition of a ... system under which the monarch and subjects committed themselves to honouring their respective rights. caliphate pact-based unitary authoritary.
In Castilla, the monarchy was ...; that is, it was made up of a single kingdom. The authority of the king was greater, given that his power came from God. caliphate pact-based unitary authoritary.
The kings, like in other European kingdoms, governed with the help of the ..., or Royal Council, a body made up of members of the noble class (nobles, knights) and the church (bishops, abbots and representatives of the military orders). Cortes Justicia Curia Regia Chancillería.
At the end of the 12th century in León and the 13th century in the other peninsular kingdoms the kings incorporated wealthy members of the bourgeoisie appointed by the cities into the Curia Regia. This signalled the birth of the Courts (cortes), assemblies made up of representatives of the three classes. True False.
With the birth of the Courts, the function of advising the king moved to other organisms in all the kingdoms: the Councils (hacienda). True False.
The king only directly controlled his own manors, called the Royal Council, while nobles and the clergy enjoyed autonomy over their own lands. True False.
The military orders were made up of warrior ... who lived in fortiﬁed monasteries. As monks, they lived under vows of obedience; as soldiers, they fought the Muslims. kings bishops monks princes.
In Castilla, the most important military orders were those of Calatrava, Alcantara and... Santiago Pablo Marcos Antonio.
In the Crown of Aragón and in Navarra, the most important were the ... and the Hospitallers, as well as the Order of the Holy Sepulchre and the Order of Montesa. Templars Calatrava Santiago Alcántara.
Industry and livestock farming were the basis of the economy of the peninsular Christian kingdoms. These activities were practised on the extensive manors belonging to the monarchy, the nobility, the clergy and the military orders. True False.
In Castilla, the nobility and the military orders turned their land into pastures for raising merino sheep in a transhumance system.In order to defend their interests, in 1273 livestock owners formed an association called the Honourable Council of the ..., recognised and favoured by Alfonso X thanks to the income and the taxes paid on the transhumant flocks. King Courts Mesta Hidalgos.
In the peninsular Christian kingdoms, an estate-based society was soon imposed. Beginning in the 11th century, this society became more complex due to the differences in wealth and the increased diversification of classes that resulted. estate-based society equality-based society.
The nobility and the clergy made up the ... classes. privileged unprivileged .
Ricoshombres, or magnates, were the owners of large manors and lived in palaces; infanzones or ... (noblemen) had smaller amounts of land and a manor house. villanos hidalgos templarios sefardíes.
The caballeros villanos of Aragón were wealthy farmers or ranchers who had sufficient resources to maintain a horse and weaponry. True False.
The peasantry was the smallest social group. It was made up of free landowners and farmers who were dependent on the manors. They lived in small houses and they ate dark bread, mixed cereals, vegetables and pulses, which were considered, at the time, a coarse food that was difficult to digest. True False.