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Semantics 1er Hemi

Intorduction to semantics

César Pineda
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“The camel swallowed the chocolate and them ate it.” is semantically: Ungrammatical Improper Unacceptable.
Pedro’s life is gloomy: can have a similar Meaning like: He lives little comfortably He has a dog´s life He does not have any lack of primary resources.
To avoid ambiguity in sentences, one aspect to avoid misunderstandings can be: The surrounding context The grammatical order The way of pronouncing it.
Words are morphemes with meaning? True False.
The entire meaning of a word can be expressed in terms: Of its definition in the dictionary The message that transmits Its logical relationship with other words.
Meanings are also things that are grasped and produced in the mind of the speaker/hearer; as he/she uses language, so meanings are therefore A cognitive and physical phenomenon A cognitive and psychological phenomenon A cultural phenomenon.
Lexicon refers to: The symbols to represent the phonemes of the words The words of the language in the speech The words of the language organized in the mind.
The absence of a lexeme at a specific point in the lexical field is called: Lexis Synonym A lexical gap.
Semantics deals with the: Linguistic system of meaning Non- linguistic aspects of meaning The context of the situation.
In human language the symbols are mostly: Conventional Related to the meaning Arbitrary.
The ability to talk about absent objects and events could be: Sometimes present in the animal world Extremely rare in the animal world Existent in the animal world.
In animal communication the creativity and the ability to produce novel utterances seems to be present. Yes No.
Onomatopoeic words such as quack-quack are exceptions in the link signal and message in human language. That characteristic of language is called: Duality Arbitrariness Signaling evolution.
Animal communication is: A learning process. The environmental necessity. Genetically inbuilt.
The organization of language into two layers. A layer of phoneme which combine into a second layer making up longer units is called ……………………….. which is another feature of language.
Most animals can communicate about things in the immediate environment only, but humans can communicate about absent and present things. This phenomenon is called: Displacement Cultural transmission Innate predisposition.
Can a person utter a sentence which has never been said before and in the most unlikely circumstances be understood? Yes No Maybe.
Humans can place side by side sounds and words in a random way giving as a result a haphazard heap of individual items. Is this phenomenon possible? If not, it is because language is: A simple list of elements An arbitrary group of sounds signals A patterned system with no link between the signal and the message.
A word is the smallest element that can be expressed in isolation since a: Linguistic point of view Semantic point of view Pragmatic point of view.
The word is a single unit of language that has meaning and can be spoken or written? True False.
Reference is the relation between the linguistic expression and the entity in the real world True False.
There are words that may differ in ………………, but not necessarily in ..............…, and vice versa. Sense- Reference meaning - sense semantics-pragamtics.
The functions of language are divided into two categories. One which refers to specific uses, and the other which: Serves more over all terms Talks about language specific uses Is used in non-spoken language.
Micro and macro functions of language are: The same ones for every language Different depending on the language Different depending on the speaker.
The physiological function of language serves to the purpose of: Releasing physical and nervous energy. To course without an apparent reason. To communicate a complex feeling or idea to other people.
The reference of a word is the _____ between expression and the _____ in the real _____ to which it refers. meaning, word, context relation, entity, world notion, object, moment.
Sense is defined as its relations to other expressions in the language system. similar, world other, relationships other, system.
Relate the concepts No reference, but sense Reference, but no sense Reference and sense .
Relate the concepts Sense is not a stored meaning in people minds in a permanent way Sense is a stored meaning in people minds in a permanent way .
Property of linguistic units which involves a borderline case, where the meaning would be or not clear. Ambiguity Iconicity Vagueness .
Property of lexical items whose meaning is in principle clear enough but for which it maybe had to decide whether or not it can be applied to certain objects. Indeterminacy of meaning Referential vagueness Scope ambiguity .
Phenomenon where an expression can have two or more distinct meanings. Ambiguity Arbitrariness Polysemy .
Language is a/an_____ of ______ used to ______ information or feelings Logical system – written symbols- exchange Arbitrary scheme – vocal symbols- express Arbitrary system- vocal symbols- substitute None .
Signifier is composed of ___________which doesn’t become a _____until it is associated with certain representation in this case _______ Series of sounds – word- signified Series of letters – sound – concept Series of sign-linguistic unit – meaning .
Match the correct answer An iconic sign is something whose form doesn't resemble to its meaning in some way In an arbitrary sign the association between the form and meaning is based only in conventions.
Duality of patterning can be analyzed in two levels: Phonemes and morphemes Words and sentences Sense an reference.
Animals have very limited messages to send and receive. True False.
Displacement of ideas is used to communicate about ……… or ………… the past-the future the present- the past all of them.
The hyponymy of linguistics are: Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics All of them.
Hypernym is more general than hyponym True False.
Meronymy is a kind of something True False.
The words in a semantic field share a common semantic property True False.
Meronymy is: Putting parts together to make a whole Describing an object Throwing away the parts of an object .
What are the two types of synonyms? cognitives and plesionyms complementary and gradable cognitives and relational.
The name of the Antonym which deny the existence of the other? Gradable Complementary Relational.
What is the characteristic of perfect synonyms? They are called near synonyms. They can be substituted in all contexts. Their meaning is perfect.
-What is the name given to hyponyms that belong to the same hypernym? Re-hyponym Co-hyponym Semi-hyponym.
Choose the correct hypernym for these hyponyms: Gelding, Stallion, Colt Horse Cow Bull. Bird.
Choose the correct hyponyms for this hypernym: Red Sage, Chartreuse, Parakket Zaffre, Teal, Lapis Fire, Flaxen, Daffodil Mahogany, Crimson, Garnet.
___________is to put ____________ together to form a whole _______ meronymy- parts-system hyponymy- lexical items-item hypernym - gaps-system .
Keeping in mind that vocabulary of any language has a basic level referring to the complexity of a ___________________ level in vocabulary, when we were children we have learned at least one ________________ and ___________________ level apart from the basic one multi-tiered-subordinate- superordinate multi-level- hyponym – meronym subordinate-multi level- multi tiered.
Complete the hyponyms and meronyms of the next lexical item: MICE HYPONYM MERONYMY.
A fuzzy sentence is when: Every part is clearly exposed There is a part unclear The sentence does not have sense.
In order to have a not fuzzy sentence is necessary the: Ambiguity Specification Use of antonyms.
What is the resemblance between parrots, penguins and toucans. Birds Animals Pets.
There are 2 types of meaning which embrace the variety of them: Conceptual meaning, Associative meaning Conceptual meaning, Thematic meaning Conceptual meaning, Affective meaning .
Semantic feature, part of the aspects of recognizing the knowledge of meaning, refers to: The speaker knows when something is meaningful in language The speaker knows when words have common elements in meaning The speaker knows when one sentence presupposes the knowledge of the other.
The Agent, part of the semantic role, refers to: The entity which is affected by the action The entity which is used to perform the action The entity which causes the action .
The semantic role is: The words fulfill a role in the situation of the sentence the consideration of the component of the conceptual meaning the consideration of the order for determining the importance of information.
How many colors were identified in the study of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay (1969)? Six Three Eleven.
What is a color term? Is a word or phrase that refers to a specific colour Is a color that could be identified by human perception Is the name of a color.
What are the THREE KINDS OF UNIVERSAL COLOR CATEGORIES? Basic, Disjuntive, Intersetive. Primary, Composite and Derived Primary, Secondary, Tertiary.
There are some form to refer a color term: Light, dark, sea, “/”, “-“ ? True False.
The term GRUE is used specify by linguists True False.
There are bounderies to refer to colours? True False.
What is connotation? What the dictionary says. What the English Book says. What the context infers.
Pragmatics has to do with established meaning by the dictionary True False.
What are the types of connotation? Neutral, Favorable, Positive Positive, Unfavorable, Favorable, Neutral Unfavorable, Favorable, Neutral.
Componential Analysis is the …………….. of a set of related linguistic items, especially ……………………., into combinations of ………………… in terms of which each item may be compared with every other. Analysis, word meanings, features Expression, sentence meaning, words. Combination, phonemes, features Analysis, semantics, features.
Match the correct answers Distinctive aspects refers to:.
A sentence is a group of …….that express a specific …….: to capture it we need to understand how words …..with other words. Ideas-thought-combine Words-meaning-relate Words-thought-relate.
A sentence meaning depends on: The meaning of the words-how words combine-our knowledge of the world The idioms-literal meaning- phrasal verbs How words relate-meaning-word class.
Metaphors have three principles features; what are they? Systematicity, symmetry, abstraction Complexity, symmetry, abstraction Asymmetry, ambiguity, systematicity Systematicity, asymmetry, abstraction.
A metaphor is an implied comparison between two unlike things that have something in common; they usually use the connectors “like” and “as” True False.
Denotation plays an important role with metaphors because each word carries cultural and emotional associations True False.
The word metaphor is a __________ composition; it has two roots “_________” which means beyond and “_________”which means_________. So, literally “to ___________” Latin, meta, pherein, carry, carry beyond Greek, meta, phore, carry, carry beyond Greek, meta, pherein, carry, carry beyond Greek, meta, pherein, go, go beyond.
Idioms are words, phrases or ___ which are commonly __in everyday conversation by native speakers of English. They are often ___and make the language more colorful. Expressions- used - metaphorical - colourful (elegant) statements - used - metaphorical - colourful.
Match with the correct answer Transparent idioms Semi-transparent idioms Semi-opaque idioms Opaque idoms.
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