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A&P - Airframe

COMENTARIOS ESTADÍSTICAS RÉCORDS
REALIZAR TEST
Título del test:
A&P - Airframe

Descripción:
All Questions

Autor:
Johann S.
(Otros tests del mismo autor)

Fecha de Creación:
06/10/2019

Categoría:
Otros

Número preguntas: 1070
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Temario:
Laminated wood spars may be substituted for solid rectangular wood spars only in certain instances where the primary load is shared by one or more other original structural member. if the same quality wood is used in both. only upon specific approval by the manufacturer or the FAA.
The strength of a well-designed and properly prepared wood splice joint is provided by the bearing surface of the wood fibers. glue. reinforcement plates.
Where is information found concerning acceptable species substitutions for wood materials used in aircraft repair? AC 43.13-1B. Aircraft Specifications or Type Certificate Data Sheets. Technical Standard Orders.
In cases of elongated boltholes in a wood spar or cracks in the vicinity of boltholes, it is permissible to ream the hole, plug with hardwood, and redrill. the spar may be reinforced by using hardwood reinforcing plates. a new section of spar should be spliced in or the spar replaced entirely.
A faint line running across the grain of a wood spar generally indicates compression failure. shear failure. decay.
Which statement about wood decay is correct? Decay that occurs before the wood is seasoned does not affect the strength of the finished piece. A limited amount of certain kinds of decay is acceptable in aircraft woods since decay affects the binding between the fibers and not the fibers themselves. Decay is not acceptable in any form or amount.
Which of the following conditions will determine acceptance of wood with mineral streaks? Careful inspection fails to reveal any decay. They produce only a small effect on grain direction. Local irregularities do not exceed limitations specified for spiral and diagonal grain.
The I-beam wooden spar is routed to increase strength. obtain uniform strength. reduce weight.
Pin knot clusters are permitted in wood aircraft structure provided they produce a small effect on grain direction. they have no mineral streaks. no pitch pockets are within 12 inches.
The cantilever wing uses external struts or wire bracing. no external bracing. the skin to carry most of the load to the wing butt.
Laminated wood is sometimes used in the construction of highly stressed aircraft components. This wood can be identified by its parallel grain construction. similarity to standard plywood construction. perpendicular grain construction.
When patching a plywood skin, abrupt changes in cross-sectional areas which will develop dangerous stress concentration should be avoided by using circular or elliptical patches. square patches. doublers with any desired shaped patches.
Glue deterioration in wood aircraft structure is indicated when a joint has separated and the glue surface shows only the imprint of the wood with no wood fibers clinging to the glue. when a joint has separated and the glue surface shows pieces of wood and/or wood fibers clinging to the glue. by any joint separation.
Compression failures in wood aircraft structures are characterized by buckling of the fibers that appear as streaks on the surface at right angles to the growth rings. parallel to the grain. at right angles to the grain.
Any wooden member that has been overstressed is subject to which type of failure? Bond failure. Compression failure. Finish failure.
Which statement concerning wood decay is correct? Decay that appears to be mineral streaks is acceptable. A limited amount of decay along the beveled edges of unrouted beams is acceptable. Any form or amount of decay is not permitted.
When and how is finishing tape applied on a fabric-covered aircraft? Sewed or laced on before dope is applied. Doped on immediately prior to the finish coat. Doped on after the first or second coat of dope.
The determining factor(s) for the selection of the correct weight of textile fabric to be used in covering any type of aircraft is the maximum wing loading. speed of the aircraft. speed of the aircraft and the maximum wing loading.
How many fabric thicknesses will be found in a French-fell seam? Five. Three. Four.
Finishing tape (surface tape) is used for what purpose? To help prevent 'ripple formation' in covering fabric. To provide additional wear resistance over the edges of fabric forming structures. To provide additional anti-tear resistance under reinforcement tape.
Moisture, mildew, chemicals, and acids have no effect on glass fabric. linen fabric. dacron fabric.
The best method of repair for a fabric-covered surface which has an L-shaped tear, each leg of which is approximately 14 inches long, is to re-cover the entire bay in which the tear is located. sew from the end of each leg to the center of the tear with a baseball stitch and then dope on a patch. sew with a baseball stitch from the center of the tear out toward the extremity of each leg and then dope on a patch.
The strength classification of fabrics used in aircraft covering is based on bearing strength. shear strength. tensile strength.
Fabric rejuvenator is used to restore the condition of dope coatings. restore fabric strength and tautness to at least the minimum acceptable level. penetrate the fabric and restore fungicidal resistance.
(1) Machine-sewn seams in aircraft covering fabrics may be of the folded-fell or French-fell types. (2) A plain lapped seam is never permissible. Regarding the above statements, both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true.
When testing the strength of Grade A cotton fabric covering an aircraft that requires only intermediate grade, the minimum acceptable strength the fabric must have is 70 percent of its original strength. 70 percent of the original strength for intermediate fabric. 56 pounds per inch warp and fill.
When dope-proofing the parts of the aircraft structure that come in contact with doped fabric, which of the following provide an acceptable protective coating? 1. Aluminum foil. 2. Resin impregnated cloth tape. 3. Any one-part type metal primer. 4. Cellulose tape. 1 and 2. 3 and 4. 1 and 4.
Fungicide and mildewicide additives are important for fabric covered aircraft, such as cotton and dacron. cotton and linen. glass and linen.
If registration numbers are to be applied to an aircraft with a letter height of 12 inches, what is the minimum space required for the registration mark N1683C? Note: 2/3 x height = character width. 1/6 x height = width for 1. 1/4 x 2/3 height = spacing. 1/6 x height = stroke or line width. 52 inches. 48 inches. 57 inches.
If masking tape is applied to an aircraft such as for trim spraying, and is left on for several days and/or exposed to heat, it is likely that the tape will not seal out the finishing material if the delay or heating occurs before spraying. be weakened in its ability to adhere to the surface. cure to the finish and be very difficult to remove.
What is used to slow the drying time of some finishes and to prevent blush? Reducer. Retarder. Rejuvenator.
Which type of coating typically includes phosphoric acid as one of its components at the time of application? Wash primer. Epoxy primer. Zinc chromate primer.
Which properly applied finish topcoat is the most durable and chemical resistant? Synthetic enamel. Acrylic lacquer. Polyurethane.
Aluminum-pigment in dope is used primarily to provide a silver color. aid in sealing out moisture from the fabric. reflect ultraviolet from the fabric.
A correct use for acetone is to thin zinc chromate primer. remove grease from fabric. thin dope.
Which of the following is a hazard associated with sanding on fabric covered surfaces during the finishing process? Overheating of the fabric/finish, especially with the use of power tools. Static electricity buildup. Embedding of particles in the finish.
What is likely to occur if unhydrated wash primer is applied to unpainted aluminum and then about 30 to 40 minutes later a finish topcoat, when the humidity is low? Corrosion. A glossy, blush-free finish. A dull finish due to the topcoat 'sinking in' to primer that is still too soft.
Fungicidal dopes are used in aircraft finishing as the first, full-bodied, brushed-on coat to prevent fungus damage. first coat to prevent fabric rotting and are applied thin enough to saturate the fabric. final, full-bodied, brushed-on coat to reduce blushing.
Before applying a protective coating to any unpainted clean aluminum, you should wipe the surface with avgas or kerosene. remove any conversion coating film. avoid touching the surface with bare hands.
What is likely to occur if hydrated wash primer is applied to unpainted aluminum and then about 30 to 40 minutes later a finish topcoat, when the humidity is low? Corrosion. A glossy, blush-free finish. A dull finish due to the topcoat 'sinking in' to primer that is still too soft.
What is the usual cause of runs and sags in aircraft finishes? Too much material applied in one coat. Material is being applied too fast. Low atmospheric humidity.
Which defect in aircraft finishes may be caused by adverse humidity, drafts, or sudden changes in temperature? Orange peel. Blushing. Pinholes.
Which statement is true regarding paint system compatibility? Old-type zinc chromate primer may not be used directly for touchup of bare metal surfaces. Acrylic nitrocellulose lacquers may be used over old nitrocellulose finishes. Old wash primer coats may be overcoated directly with epoxy finishes.
A well-designed rivet joint will subject the rivets to compressive loads. shear loads. tension loads.
A main difference between Lockbolt/Huckbolt tension and shear fasteners (other than their application) is in the number of locking collar grooves. shape of the head. method of installation.
Alloy 2117 rivets are heat treated by the manufacturer and do not require heat treatment before being driven. by the manufacturer but require reheat treatment before being driven. to a temperature of 910 to 930°F and quenched in cold water.
The general rule for finding the proper rivet diameter is three times the thickness of the materials to be joined. two times the rivet length. three times the thickness of the thickest sheet.
The shop head of a rivet should be one and one-half times the diameter of the rivet shank. one-half times the diameter of the rivet shank. one and one-half times the diameter of the manufactured head of the rivet.
One of the main advantages of Hi-Lok type fasteners over earlier generations is that they can be removed and reused again. the squeezed on collar installation provides a more secure, tighter fit. they can be installed with ordinary hand tools.
The markings on the head of a Dzus fastener identify the body diameter, type of head, and length of the fastener. body type, head diameter, and type of material. manufacturer and type of material.
The Dzus turnlock fastener consists of a stud, grommet, and receptacle. The stud length is measured in hundredths of an inch. tenths of an inch. sixteenths of an inch.
The Dzus turnlock fastener consists of a stud, grommet, and receptacle. The stud diameter is measured in tenths of an inch. hundredths of an inch. sixteenths of an inch.
Threaded rivets (Rivnuts) are commonly used to join two or more pieces of sheet metal where shear strength is desired. attach parts or components with screws to sheet metal. join two or more pieces of sheet metal where bearing strength is desired.
The installation of Cherrymax and Olympic-Lok rivets is accomplished by utilizing rivet gun, special rivet set, and bucking bar. a pulling tool. ordinary hand tools.
Hole filling fasteners (for example, MS20470 rivets) should not be used in composite structures primarily because of the possibility of causing delamination. increased possibility of fretting corrosion in the fastener. difficulty in forming a proper shop head.
Metal fasteners used with carbon/graphite composite structures may be constructed of any of the metals commonly used in aircraft fasteners. must be constructed of material such as titanium or corrosion resistant steel. must be constructed of high strength aluminum-lithium alloy.
Sandwich panels made of metal honeycomb construction are used on modern aircraft because this type of construction has a high strength to weight ratio. may be repaired by gluing replacement skin to the inner core material with thermoplastic resin. is lighter than single sheet skin of the same strength and is more corrosion resistant.
(1) When performing a ring (coin tap) test on composite structures, a change in sound may be due to damage or to transition to a different internal structure. (2) The extent of separation damage in composite structures is most accurately measured by a ring (coin tap) test. Regarding the above statements, both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true.
Which of these methods may be used to inspect fiberglass/honeycomb structures for entrapped water? 1. Acoustic emission monitoring. 2. X-ray. 3. Backlighting. 1 and 2. 1 and 3. 2 and 3.
When balsa wood is used to replace a damaged honeycomb core, the plug should be cut so that the grain is parallel to the skin. it is about 1/8 inch undersize to allow sufficient bonding material to be applied. the grain is perpendicular to the skin.
When repairing puncture-type damage of a metal faced laminated honeycomb panel, the edges of the doubler should be tapered to two times the thickness of the metal. 100 times the thickness of the metal. whatever is desired for a neat, clean appearance.
One of the best ways to assure that a properly prepared batch of matrix resin has been achieved is to perform a chemical composition analysis. have mixed enough for a test sample. test the viscosity of the resin immediately after mixing.
How does acoustic emission testing detect defects in composite materials? By picking up the 'noise' of any deterioration that may be present. By analyzing ultrasonic signals transmitted into the parts being inspected. By creating sonogram pictures of the areas being inspected.
What precaution, if any, should be taken to prevent corrosion inside a repaired metal honeycomb structure? Prime the repair with a corrosion inhibitor and seal from the atmosphere. Paint the outside area with several coats of exterior paint. None. Honeycomb is usually made from a man-made or fibrous material which is not susceptible to corrosion.
One method of inspecting a laminated fiberglass structure that has been subjected to damage is to strip the damaged area of all paint and shine a strong light through the structure. use dye-penetrant inspection procedures, exposing the entire damaged area to the penetrant solution. use an eddy current probe on both sides of the damaged area.
When inspecting a composite panel using the ring test/tapping method, a dull thud may indicate less than full strength curing of the matrix. separation of the laminates. an area of too much matrix between fiber layers.
How many of the following are benefits of using microballoons when making repairs to laminated honeycomb panels? 1. Greater concentrations of resin in edges and corners. 2. Improved strength to weight ratio. 3. Less density 4. Lower stress concentrations 2, 3, and 4. 1, 2, and 4. All of the above.
The length of time that a catalyzed resin will remain in a workable state is called the pot life. work life. pliable life.
A category of plastic material that is capable of softening or flowing when reheated is described as a thermoplastic. thermocure. thermoset.
The classification for high tensile strength fiberglass used in aircraft structures is E-glass. S-glass. G-glass.
Which is an identifying characteristic of acrylic plastics? Zinc chloride will have no effect. Acrylic has a yellowish tint when viewed from the edge. Acetone will soften plastic, but will change its color.
Superficial scars, scratches, surface abrasion, or rain erosion on fiberglass laminates can generally be repaired by applying a piece of resin-impregnated glass fabric facing. one or more coats of suitable resin (room-temperature catalyzed) to the surface. a sheet of polyethylene over the abraded surface and one or more coats of resin cured with infrared heat lamps.
The classification for fiberglass reinforcement material that has high resistivity and is the most common is E-glass. S-glass. G-glass.
A potted compound repair on honeycomb can usually be made on damages less than 4 inches in diameter. 2 inches in diameter. 1 inch in diameter.
Composite fabric material is considered to be the strongest in what direction? Fill. Warp. Bias.
What reference tool is used to determine how the fiber is to be oriented for a particular ply of fabric? Fill clock (or compass). Bias clock (or compass). Warp clock (or compass).
The strength and stiffness of a properly constructed composite buildup depends primarily on a 60 percent matrix to 40 percent fiber ratio. the orientation of the plies to the load direction. the ability of the fibers to transfer stress to the matrix.
Which fiber to resin (percent) ratio for advanced composite wet lay-ups is generally considered the best for strength? 40:60. 50:50. 60:40.
What is the material layer used within the vacuum bag pressure system to absorb excess resin during curing called? Bleeder. Breather. Release.
Proper pre-preg composite lay-up curing is generally accomplished by 1. applying external heat. 2. room temperature exposure. 3. adding a catalyst or curing agent to the resin. 4. applying pressure. 2 and 3. 1 and 4. 1, 3, and 4.
When repairing large, flat surfaces with polyester resins, warping of the surface is likely to occur. One method of reducing the amount of warpage is to add an extra amount of catalyst to the resin. use short strips of fiberglass in the bonded repair. use less catalyst than normal so the repair will be more flexible.
When making repairs to fiberglass, cleaning of the area to be repaired is essential for a good bond. The final cleaning should be made using MEK (methyl ethyl ketone). soap, water, and a scrub brush. a thixotropic agent.
When necessary, what type of cutting fluid is usually acceptable for machining composite laminates? Water soluble oil. Water displacing oil. Water only.
Fiberglass laminate damage not exceeding the first layer or ply can be repaired by filling with a putty consisting of a compatible resin and clean, short glass fibers. sanding the damaged area until aerodynamic smoothness is obtained. trimming the rough edges and sealing with paint.
Fiberglass damage that extends completely through a laminated sandwich structure may be repaired. must be filled with resin to eliminate dangerous stress concentrations. may be filled with putty which is compatible with resin.
Fiberglass laminate damage that extends completely through one facing and into the core cannot be repaired. requires the replacement of the damaged core and facing. can be repaired by using a typical metal facing patch.
Repairing advanced composites using materials and techniques traditionally used for fiberglass repairs is likely to result in restored strength and flexibility. slightly stronger strength to weight ratio. an unairworthy repair.
The preferred way to make permanent repairs on composites is by bonding on metal or cured composite patches. riveting on metal or cured composite patches. laminating on new repair plies.
Which of the following, when added to wet resins, provide strength for the repair of damaged fastener holes in composite panels? 1. Microballoons. 2. Flox. 3. Chopped fibers. 2 and 3. 1 and 3. 1, 2, and 3.
The part of a replacement honeycomb core that must line up with the adjacent original is the cell side. ribbon direction. cell edge.
Which of the following are generally characteristic of aramid fiber (Kevlar) composites? 1. High tensile strength. 2. Flexibility. 3. Stiffness. 4. Corrosive effect in contact with aluminum. 5. Ability to conduct electricity. 1 and 2. 2, 3, and 4. 1, 3, and 5.
Which of the following are generally characteristic of carbon/graphite fiber composites? 1. Flexibility. 2. Stiffness. 3. High compressive strength. 4. Corrosive effect in contact with aluminum. 5. Ability to conduct electricity. 1 and 3. 2, 3, and 4. 1, 3, and 5.
If an aircraft's transparent plastic enclosures exhibit fine cracks which may extend in a network over or under the surface or through the plastic, the plastic is said to be hazing. brinelling. crazing.
When installing transparent plastic enclosures which are retained by bolts extending through the plastic material and self-locking nuts, the nuts should be tightened to a firm fit, plus one full turn. tightened to a firm fit, then backed off one full turn. tightened to a firm fit.
If a new safety belt is to be installed in an aircraft, the belt must conform to the strength requirements in which document? STC 1282. 14 CFR Part 39. TSO C22.
Which is considered good practice concerning the installation of acrylic plastics? When nuts and bolts are used, the plastic should be installed hot and tightened to a firm fit before the plastic cools. When rivets are used, adequate spacer or other satisfactory means to prevent excessive tightening of the frame to the plastic should be provided. When rivets or nuts and bolts are used, slotted holes are not recommended.
The coefficient of expansion of most plastic enclosure materials is greater than both steel and aluminum. greater than steel but less than aluminum. less than either steel or aluminum.
If no scratches are visible after transparent plastic enclosure materials have been cleaned, their surfaces should be polished with rubbing compound applied with a damp cloth. buffed with a clean, soft, dry cloth. covered with a thin coat of wax.
Cabin upholstery materials installed in current standard category airplanes must be fireproof. be at least flame resistant. meet the requirements prescribed in Part 43.
What is the most common method of cementing transparent plastics? Heat method. Soak method. Bevel method.
What type of bit should be used to drill holes in Plexiglas? A standard twist drill. A specially modified twist drill. A dulled twist drill.
What is the purpose of a gusset or gusset plate used in the construction and repair of aircraft structures? To hold structural members in position temporarily until the permanent attachment has been completed. To provide access for inspection of structural attachments. To join and reinforce intersecting structural members.
Select the alternative which best describes the function of the flute section of a twist drill. Provides a method for cooling oil to be delivered to the cutting surface. Forms the area where the drill bit attaches to the drill motor. Forms the cutting edges of the drill point.
How many MS20470 AD-4-6 rivets will be required to attach a 10 x 5 inch plate, using a single row of rivets, minimum edge distance, and 4D spacing? 56 54 52.
On a semimonocoque fuselage, the skin is reinforced by longitudinal structural members called beams and struts. longerons and stringers. formers and bulkheads.
Shallow scratches in sheet metal may be repaired by burnishing. buffing. stop drilling.
What should be the included angle of a twist drill for soft metals? 118°. 90°. 65°.
When comparing the machining techniques for stainless steel sheet material to those for aluminum alloy sheet, it is normally considered good practice to drill the stainless steel at a higher speed with less pressure applied to the drill. lower speed with more pressure applied to the drill. lower speed with less pressure applied to the drill.
A single-lap sheet splice is to be used to repair a section of damaged aluminum skin. If a double row of 1/8-inch rivets is used, the minimum allowable overlap will be 1/2 inch. 3/4 inch. 13/16 inch.
Which statement is true regarding the inspection of a stressed skin metal wing assembly known to have been critically loaded? If rivets show no visible distortion, further investigation is unnecessary. If bearing failure has occurred, the rivet shanks will be joggled. If genuine rivet tipping has occurred, groups of consecutive rivet heads will be tipped in the same direction.
What is the minimum edge distance for aircraft rivets? Two times the diameter of the rivet shank. Two times the diameter of the rivet head. Three times the diameter of the rivet shank.
When drilling stainless steel, the drill used should have an included angle of 90° and turn at a low speed. 118° and turn at a high speed. 140° and turn at a low speed.
What is the minimum spacing for a single row of aircraft rivets? Two times the diameter of the rivet shank. Three times the length of the rivet shank. Three times the diameter of the rivet shank.
(Refer to Figure 1.) Which of the rivets shown will accurately fit the conical depression made by a 100° countersink? 1 2 3.
Which is correct concerning the use of a file? Apply pressure on the forward stroke, only, except when filing very soft metals such as lead or aluminum. A smoother finish can be obtained by using a double-cut file than by using a single-cut file. The terms 'double-cut' and 'second-cut' have the same meaning in reference to files.
What is one of the determining factors which permits machine countersinking when flush riveting? Thickness of the material and rivet diameter are the same. Thickness of the material is less than the thickness of the rivet head. Thickness of the material is greater than the thickness of the rivet head.
When repairing a small hole on a metal stressed skin, the major consideration in the design of the patch should be the shear strength of the riveted joint. to use rivet spacing similar to a seam in the skin. that the bond between the patch and the skin is sufficient to prevent dissimilar metal corrosion.
Which procedure is correct when using a reamer to finish a drilled hole to the correct size? Turn the reamer in the cutting direction when enlarging the hole and in the opposite direction to remove from the hole. Turn the reamer only in the cutting direction. Apply considerable pressure on the reamer when starting the cut and reduce the pressure when finishing the cut.
Repairs or splices involving stringers on the lower surface of stressed skin metal wings are usually not permitted. permitted only if the damage does not exceed 6 inches in any direction. permitted but are normally more critical in reference to strength in tension than similar repairs to the upper surface.
When straightening members made of 2024-T4, you should straighten cold and reinforce. straighten cold and anneal to remove stress. apply heat to the inside of the bend.
Clad aluminum alloys are used in aircraft because they are naturally corrosion resistant, so they do not require corrosion resistant materials for protection. have surface layers of pure aluminum or aluminum alloy bonded to the core material to inhibit corrosion. are highly corrosion resistant because an oxide film forms on their surfaces upon contact with air.
Which statement is true regarding a cantilever wing? It has nonadjustable lift struts. No external bracing is needed. It requires only one lift strut on each side.
Aircraft structural units, such as spars, engine supports, etc., which have been built up from sheet metal, are normally repairable, using approved methods. repairable, except when subjected to compressive loads. not repairable, but must be replaced when damaged or deteriorated.
A factor which determines the minimum space between rivets is the length of the rivets being used. diameter of the rivets being used. thickness of the material being riveted.
What should be the included angle of a twist drill for hard metal? 118°. 100°. 90°.
Parts fabricated from Alclad 2024-T3 aluminum sheet stock must have all bends made with a small radius to develop maximum strength. bends 90° to the grain. scratches, kinks, tool marks, nicks, etc., must be held to a minimum.
The monocoque fuselage relies largely on the strength of longerons and formers. skin or covering. bulkheads and longerons.
Which part(s) of a semi-monocoque fuselage prevent(s) tension and compression from bending the fuselage? Ribs and formers. Longerons and stringers. Bulkheads and skin.
Rivet gauge, or transverse pitch is the distance between the centers of rivets in adjacent rows. centers of adjacent rivets in the same row. heads of rivets in the same row.
Rivet pitch is the distance between the centers of rivets in adjacent rows. centers of adjacent rivets in the same row. heads of rivets in the same row.
(Refer to Figure 2.) Select the preferred drawing for proper countersinking. All are acceptable. 2 1.
What is indicated by a black 'smoky' residue streaming back from some of the rivets on an aircraft? Filiform corrosion is occurring between the rivets and the skin. Intergranular corrosion is occurring between the rivets and the skin. Fretting corrosion is occurring between the rivets and the skin.
The identifying marks on the heads of aluminum alloy rivets indicate the degree of dimensional and process control observed during manufacture. head shape, shank size, material used, and specifications adhered to during manufacture. specific alloy used in the manufacture of the rivets.
When an MS20470D rivet is installed, its full shear strength is obtained only after a period of age hardening. by the cold working of the rivet metal in forming a shop head. by heat treating just prior to being driven.
Which of the following need not be considered when determining minimum rivet spacing? Rivet diameter. Rivet length. Type of material being riveted.
What is the purpose of refrigerating 2017 and 2024 aluminum alloy rivets after heat treatment? To accelerate age hardening. To relieve internal stresses. To retard age hardening.
Under certain conditions, type A rivets are not used because of their low strength characteristics. unique design that causes crazing or cracking. tendency toward embrittlement when subjected to vibration.
A rivet set used to drive MS20470 rivets should have the same radius as the rivet head. have a slightly greater radius than the rivet head. be nearly flat on the end, with a slight radius on the edge to prevent damage to the sheet being riveted.
Heat-treated rivets in the D and DD series that are not driven within the prescribed time after heat treatment or removal from refrigeration must be reheat treated before use. must be discarded. may be returned to refrigeration and used later without reheat treatment.
The dimensions of an MS20430AD-4-8 rivet are 1/8 inch in diameter and 1/4 inch long. 1/8 inch in diameter and 1/2 inch long. 4/16 inch in diameter and 8/32 inch long.
The primary alloying agent of 2024-T3 is indicated by the number 2 20 24.
Which part of the 2017-T36 aluminum alloy designation indicates the primary alloying agent used in its manufacture? 2 17 20.
A sheet metal repair is to be made using two pieces of 0.040-inch aluminum riveted together. All rivet holes are drilled for 3/32-inch rivets. The length of the rivets to be used will be 1/8 inch. 1/4 inch. 5/16 inch.
Most rivets used in aircraft construction have dimples. smooth heads without markings. a raised dot.
MS20426AD-6-5 indicates a countersunk rivet which has a shank length of 5/16 inch (excluding head). a shank length of 5/32 inch (excluding head). an overall length of 5/16 inch.
Which rivet may be used as received without further treatment? 2024-T4. 2117-T3. 2017-T3.
(Refer to Figure 3.) Which is the grip length of the flush rivet? 1 2 3.
Which rivets should be selected to join two sheets of .032-inch aluminum? MS20425D-4-3. MS20470AD-4-4. MS20455DD-5-3.
A sheet metal repair is to be made using two pieces of 0.0625-inch aluminum riveted together. All rivet holes are drilled for 1/8-inch rivets. The length of the rivets to be used will be 5/32 inch. 3/16 inch. 5/16 inch.
Mild steel rivets are used for riveting nickel-steel parts. magnesium parts. steel parts.
A DD rivet is heat treated before use to harden and increase strength. relieve internal stresses. soften to facilitate riveting.
When riveting dissimilar metals together, what precautions must be taken to prevent an electrolytic action? Treat the surfaces to be riveted together with a process called anodic treatment. Place a protective separator between areas of potential electrical difference. Avoid the use of dissimilar metals by redesigning the unit according to the recommendations outlined in AC 43.13-1A.
The length of a rivet to be used to join a sheet of .032-inch and .064-inch aluminum alloy should be equal to two times the rivet diameter plus .064 inch. one and one-half times the rivet diameter plus .096 inch. three times the rivet diameter plus .096 inch.
What is generally the best procedure to use when removing a solid shank rivet? Drill through the manufactured head and shank with a shank size drill and remove the rivet with a punch. Drill to the base of the manufactured rivet head with a drill one size smaller than the rivet shank and remove the rivet with a punch. Drill through the manufactured head and shank with a drill one size smaller than the rivet and remove the rivet with a punch.
Joggles in removed rivet shanks would indicate partial bearing failure. torsion failure. shear failure.
What type loads cause the most rivet failures? Shear. Bearing. Head.
Which rivet is used for riveting magnesium alloy structures? Mild steel. 5056 aluminum. Monel.
Which rivet is used for riveting nickel-steel alloys? 2024 aluminum. Mild steel. Monel.
The length of rivet to be chosen when making a structural repair that involves the joining of 0.032-inch and 0.064-inch aluminum sheet, drilled with a No. 30 drill, is 7/16 inch. 5/16 inch. 1/4 inch.
(Refer to Figure 4.) The length of flat A is 3.750 inches. 3.875 inches. 3.937 inches.
(Refer to Figure 4.) The amount of material required to make the 90° bend is 0.3436 inch. 0.3717 inch. 0.3925 inch.
(Refer to Figure 5.) What is the length of flat A? 3.7 inches. 3.8 inches. 3.9 inches.
(Refer to Figure 5.) What is the flat layout dimension? 7.0 inches. 6.8 inches. 6.6 inches.
If a streamline cover plate is to be hand formed using a form block, a piece of dead soft aluminum should first be placed over the hollow portion of the mold and securely fastened in place. The bumping operation should be distributed evenly over the face of the aluminum at all times rather than being started at the edges or center. started by tapping the aluminum lightly around the edges and gradually working down into the center. started by tapping the aluminum in the center until it touches the bottom of the mold and then working out in all directions.
A piece of flat stock that is to be bent to a closed angle of 15° must be bent through an angle of 165°. 105°. 90°.
When a piece of aluminum alloy is to be bent using a minimum radius for the type and thickness of material, the piece should be bent slowly to eliminate cracking. the layout should be made so that the bend will be 90° to the grain of the sheet. less pressure than usual should be applied with the movable (upper) clamping bar.
The flat layout or blank length of a piece of metal from which a simple L-shaped bracket 3 inches by 1 inch is to be bent depends upon the radius of the desired bend. The bracket which will require the greatest amount of material is one which has a bend radius of 1/8 inch. 1/2 inch. 1/4 inch.
If it is necessary to compute a bend allowance problem and bend allowance tables are not available, the neutral axis of the bend can be represented by the actual length of the required material for the bend. found by adding approximately one-half of the stock thickness to the bend radius. found by subtracting the stock thickness from the bend radius.
Unless otherwise specified, the radius of a bend is the inside radius of the metal being formed. inside radius plus one-half the thickness of the metal being formed. radius of the neutral axis plus one-half the thickness of the metal being formed.
The sharpest bend that can be placed in a piece of metal without critically weakening the part is called the bend allowance. minimum radius of bend. maximum radius of bend.
The most important factors needed to make a flat pattern layout are radius, thickness, and mold line. radius, thickness, and degree of bend. the lengths of the legs (flat sections).
A piece of sheet metal is bent to a certain radius. The curvature of the bend is referred to as the bend allowance. neutral line. bend radius.
You can distinguish between aluminum and aluminum alloy by filing the metal. testing with an acetic acid solution. testing with a 10 percent solution of caustic soda.
The purpose of a joggle is to allow clearance for a sheet or an extrusion. increase obstruction for a sheet or an extrusion. decrease the weight of the part and still retain the necessary strength.
When bending metal, the material on the outside of the curve stretches while the material on the inside of the curve compresses. That part of the material which is not affected by either stress is the mold line. bend tangent line. neutral line.
(Refer to Figure 6.) Determine the dimensions of A, B, and C in the flat layout. Setback = .252 Bend allowance = .345 A = .748, B = 2.252, C = 2.004. A = .748, B = 1.496, C = 1.248. A = 1.252, B = 2.504, C = 1.752.
(Refer to Figure 6.) What is dimension D? Setback = .252 Bend allowance = .345 3.492. 4.182. 3.841.
The sight line on a sheet metal flat layout to be bent in a cornice or box brake is measured and marked one-half radius from either bend tangent line. one radius from either bend tangent line. one radius from the bend tangent line that is placed under the brake.
(Refer to Figure 7.) What is dimension F? Setback at D = .095 Setback at E = .068 Bend allowance at D = .150 Bend allowance at E = .112 4.836. 5.936. 5.738.
On a sheet metal fitting layout with a single bend, allow for stretching by adding the setback to each leg. subtracting the setback from one leg. subtracting the setback from both legs.
The aluminum alloys used in aircraft construction are usually hardened by which method? Cold-working. Aging. Heat treatment.
Which of the following drill bit types work best when drilling an aramid fiber (Kevlar(c)) composite laminate? Tool steel with standard grind. Diamond dust coated. Carbide W-Point.
What is the minimum edge distance allowed for aluminum alloy single lap sheet splices containing a single row of rivets as compared to a joint with multiple rows, all rivets being equal in diameter? The minimum edge distance for the single row is greater than that for the multiple row. The minimum edge distance for the single row is less than that for the multiple row. The minimum edge distance for the single row is equal to that for the multiple row.
When conducting a tap test on a composite panel, which of the following sounds would indicate delamination? Sharp ringing. Dull thud. Sharp thud.
Which part of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy indicates the temper designation? T3. 2024. 20.
Which of the following is one advantage of Hi-Lok fasteners? Shorter transition area between the shank and thread. External counterbore at the base to accommodate material thickness. Inability to be over-torqued.
In Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding, a stream of inert gas is used to prevent the formation of oxides in the puddle. concentrate the heat of the arc and prevent its dissipation. lower the temperature required to properly fuse the metal.
Which statement best describes magnesium welding? Magnesium can be welded to other metals. Filler rod should be nickel-steel. Filler rod should be the same composition as base metal.
Which statement is true in regard to welding heat-treated magnesium? The welded section does not have the strength of the original metal. Flux should not be used because it is very difficult to remove and is likely to cause corrosion. Magnesium cannot be repaired by fusion welding because of the high probability of igniting the metal.
The oxyacetylene flame for silver soldering should be oxidizing. neutral. carburizing.
Why is it necessary to use flux in all silver soldering operations? To chemically clean the base metal of oxide film. To prevent overheating of the base metal. To increase heat conductivity.
Engine mount members should preferably be repaired by using a larger diameter tube with fishmouth and no rosette welds. larger diameter tube with fishmouth and rosette welds. smaller diameter tube with fishmouth and rosette welds.
What method of repair is recommended for a steel tube longeron dented at a cluster? Welded split sleeve. Welded outer sleeve. Welded patch plate.
Welding over brazed or soldered joints is not permitted. permissible for mild steel. permissible for most metals or alloys that are not heat treated.
Which statement concerning soldering is correct? Joints in electric wire to be soldered should be mechanically secure prior to soldering. Changeable shades of blue can be observed on the surface of a copper soldering tip when the proper temperature for soldering has been reached. If the soldering temperature is too high, the solder will form in lumps and not produce a positive bond.
A resurfaced soldering iron cannot be used effectively until after the working face has been fluxed. polished. tinned.
Which of the following can normally be welded without adversely affecting strength? 1. Aircraft bolts. 2. SAE 4130 chrome/molybdenum tubing. 3. Spring steel struts. 4. Most heat-treated steel/nickel alloy components. 2 and 4. 1 and 3. 2.
In selecting a torch tip size to use in welding, the size of the tip opening determines the amount of heat applied to the work. temperature of the flame. melting point of the filler metal.
Why should a carburizing flame be avoided when welding steel? It removes the carbon content. It hardens the surface. A cold weld will result.
The most important consideration(s) when selecting welding rod is current setting or flame temperature. material compatibility. ambient conditions.
The oxyacetylene flame used for aluminum welding should be neutral and soft. be slightly oxidizing. contain an excess of acetylene and leave the tip at a relatively low speed.
A very thin and pointed tip on a soldering copper is undesirable because it will transfer too much heat to the work. have a tendency to overheat and become brittle. cool too rapidly.
Filing or grinding a weld bead is considered to be an acceptable means to achieve a smoother surface. a way to bring about strength reduction in joint. frequently necessary to avoid adding excess weight to a weld joint.
Acetylene at a line pressure above 15 PSI is dangerously unstable. used when a reducing flame is necessary. usually necessary when welding metal over 3/8-inch thick.
Cylinders used to transport and store acetylene are pressure tested to 3,000 PSI. are green in color. contain acetone.
A welding torch backfire may be caused by a loose tip. using too much acetylene. a tip temperature that is too cool.
Which statement concerning a welding process is true? The inert-arc welding process uses an inert gas to protect the weld zone from the atmosphere. In the metallic-arc welding process, filler material, if needed, is provided by a separate metal rod of the proper material held in the arc. In the oxyacetylene welding process, the filler rod used for steel is covered with a thin coating of flux.
Where should the flux be applied when oxyacetylene welding aluminum? Painted only on the surface to be welded. Painted on the surface to be welded and applied to the welding rod. Applied only to the welding rod.
What purpose does flux serve in welding aluminum? Removes dirt, grease, and oil. Minimizes or prevents oxidation. Ensures proper distribution of the filler rod.
Why are aluminum plates 1/4 inch or more thick usually preheated before welding? Reduces internal stresses and assures more complete penetration. Reduces welding time. Prevents corrosion and ensures proper distribution of flux.
How should a welding torch flame be adjusted to weld stainless steel? Slightly carburizing. Slightly oxidizing. Neutral.
Oxides form very rapidly when alloys or metals are hot. It is important, therefore, when welding aluminum to use a solvent. filler. flux.
In gas welding, the amount of heat applied to the material being welded is controlled by the oxygen-acetylene regulator. size of the tip opening. cutting oxygen valve lever.
Oxygen and acetylene cylinders are made of seamless aluminum. steel. bronze.
When a butt welded joint is visually inspected for penetration, 50 percent of the thickness of the base metal. 100 percent of the thickness of the base metal. 75 percent of the thickness of the base metal.
Annealing of aluminum increases the tensile strength. makes the material brittle. removes stresses caused by forming.
Edge notching is generally recommended in butt welding above a certain thickness of aluminum because it helps hold the metal in alignment during welding. aids in the removal or penetration of oxides on the metal surface. aids in getting full penetration of the metal and prevents local distortion.
If too much acetylene is used in the welding of stainless steel, a porous weld will result. the metal will absorb carbon and lose its resistance to corrosion. oxide will be formed on the base metal close to the weld.
The shielding gases generally used in the Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding of aluminum consist of a mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. nitrogen or hydrogen, or a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen. helium or argon, or a mixture of helium and argon.
High pressure cylinders used to transport and store acetylene must be pressure tested to 3,000 PSI. be green in color. contain acetone.
Which statement best describes magnesium welding? It has low thermal conductivity, so distortion and cracking rarely occur. It is recommended to use larger welding beads and a slower welding speed than normal. It can be welded successfully using the same type of joints that are used for aluminum.
When welding or cutting, the acetylene pressure gauge should never be set higher than 15 PSI. 20 PSI. 25 PSI.
When selecting a welding rod, one of the most important factors to consider is to ensure that ferrous rods are used on aluminum. the proper AMS specification number is used. nonferrous rods are used on steel.
The auxiliary (tail) rotor of a helicopter permits the pilot to compensate for and/or accomplish which of the following? Altitude and pitch oscillation. Airspeed and trimmed flight. Torque and directional control.
The vertical flight of a helicopter is controlled by collective pitch changes. cyclic pitch changes. increasing or decreasing the RPM of the main rotor.
A reduction in anti-torque thrust will cause the tail to pivot in the opposite direction of torque rotation around the main rotor axis. tail to pivot in the direction of torque rotation around the main rotor axis. anti-torque system to become more efficient in the hover mode.
In rotorcraft external-loading, the ideal location of the cargo release is where the line of action passes aft of the center of gravity at all times. forward of the center of gravity at all times. through the center of gravity at all times.
The acute angle formed by the chord line of a wing and the relative wind is known as the longitudinal dihedral angle. angle of incidence. angle of attack.
A helicopter in forward flight, cruise configuration, changes direction by varying the pitch of the main rotor blades. changing rotor RPM. tilting the main rotor disk in the desired direction.
The purpose in checking main rotor blade tracking is to determine the relative position of the blades during rotation. flight path of the blades during rotation. extent of an out of balance condition during rotation.
In a hovering helicopter equipped with a tail rotor, directional control is maintained by changing the tail rotor RPM. tilting the main rotor disk in the desired direction. varying the pitch of the tail rotor blades.
If a single-rotor helicopter is in forward horizontal flight, the angle of attack of the advancing blade is more than the retreating blade. equal to the retreating blade. less than the retreating blade.
Main rotor blades that do not cone by the same amount during rotation are said to be out of balance. collective pitch. track.
One purpose of the freewheeling unit required between the engine and the helicopter transmission is to automatically disengage the rotor from the engine in case of an engine failure. disconnect the rotor from the engine to relieve the starter load. permit practice of autorotation landings.
Which statement is correct concerning torque effect on helicopters? Torque direction is the same as rotor blade rotation. As horsepower decreases, torque increases. Torque direction is the opposite of rotor blade rotation.
What is the purpose of the free-wheeling unit in a helicopter drive system? It disengages the engine from the main rotor when engine RPM is less than rotor RPM. It allows the engines to be started without any load from the transmission. It allows the rotors to turn slowly as the engine RPM increases.
Movement about the longitudinal axis (roll) in a helicopter is effected by movement of the collective pitch control. cyclic pitch control. tail rotor pitch control.
Movement about the lateral axis (pitch) in a helicopter is effected by movement of the collective pitch control. cyclic pitch control. tail rotor pitch control.
Wing dihedral, a rigging consideration on most airplanes of conventional design, contributes most to stability of the airplane about its longitudinal axis. vertical axis. lateral axis.
Other than the manufacturer maintenance manual what other document could be used to determine the primary flight control surface deflection for an imported aircraft that is reassembled after shipment? Aircraft type certificate data sheet. Import manual for the aircraft. The certificate of airworthiness issued by the importing country.
If a pilot reports that an airplane flies left wing heavy, this condition may be corrected by increasing the angle of incidence of the left wing, or decreasing the angle of incidence of the right wing, or both. increasing the dihedral angle of the left wing, or decreasing the dihedral angle of the right wing, or both. adjusting the dihedral angle of the left wing so that differential pressure between the upper and lower wing surfaces is increased.
If the vertical fin of a single-engine, propeller-driven airplane is rigged properly, it will generally be parallel to the longitudinal axis but not the vertical axis. the vertical axis but not the longitudinal axis. both the longitudinal and vertical axes.
An airplane which has good longitudinal stability should have a minimum tendency to roll. pitch. yaw.
As the angle of attack of an airfoil increases, the center of pressure will move toward the trailing edge. remain stationary because both lift and drag components increase proportionally to increased angle of attack. move toward the leading edge.
The angle of incidence is that acute angle formed by the angular difference between the setting of the main airfoil and the auxiliary airfoil (horizontal stabilizer) in reference to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. a line parallel to the wing chord and a line parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. a line parallel to the wing from root to tip and a line parallel to the lateral axis of the aircraft.
An airplane's center of lift is usually located aft of its center of gravity so that the airplane will have a tail-heavy tendency. so that the airplane will have a nose-heavy tendency. to improve stability about the longitudinal axis.
An airplane is controlled directionally about its vertical axis by the rudder. elevator(s). ailerons.
The elevators of a conventional airplane are used to provide rotation about the longitudinal axis. lateral axis. vertical axis.
Washing-in the left wing of a monoplane, for purposes of rigging corrections after flight test, will have what effect on the lift and drag of that wing? Both drag and lift will decrease due to decreased angle of attack. Both drag and lift will increase due to increased angle of attack. The drag will decrease due to the effect of the lift increase.
What type of flap system increases the wing area and changes the wing camber? Fowler flaps. Slotted flaps. Split flaps.
If the right wing of a monoplane is improperly rigged to a greater angle of incidence than designated in the manufacturer's specifications, it will cause the airplane to be off balance both laterally and directionally. airplane to pitch and roll about the lateral axis. right wing to have both an increased lift and a decreased drag.
The chord of a wing is measured from wingtip to wingtip. wing root to the wingtip. leading edge to trailing edge.
When the lift of an airfoil increases, the drag will decrease. also increase. increase while the lift is changing but will return to its original value.
What physical factors are involved in the aspect ratio of airplane wings? Thickness and chord. Span and chord. Dihedral and angle of attack.
Improper rigging of the elevator trim tab system will affect the balance of the airplane about its lateral axis. longitudinal axis. vertical axis.
An airplane that has a tendency to gradually increase a pitching moment that has been set into motion has poor longitudinal stability. good lateral stability. poor lateral stability.
The purpose of wing slats is to reduce stalling speed. decrease drag. reduce lift.
The angle of incidence of an airplane at rest affects the dihedral of the wings in flight. is the same as the angle between the relative wind and the chord of the wing. does not change when in flight.
Buffeting is the intermittent application of forces to a part of an airplane. It is caused by incorrect rigging of flaps. an unsteady flow from turbulence. incorrect rigging of ailerons.
Movement of an airplane along its lateral axis (roll) is also movement around or about the longitudinal axis controlled by the elevator. around or about the lateral axis controlled by the ailerons. around or about the longitudinal axis controlled by the ailerons.
The primary purpose of stall strips is to provide added lift at slow speeds. stall the inboard portion of the wings first. provide added lift at high angles of attack.
Rigging and alignment checks should not be undertaken in the open. However, if this cannot be avoided, the aircraft should be positioned with the tail into the wind. left wing into the wind. nose into the wind.
The correct dihedral angle can be determined by measuring the angular setting of each wing at the rear spar with a bubble protractor. placing a straightedge and bubble protractor across the spars while the airplane is in flying position. using a dihedral board and bubble level along the front spar of each wing.
The dihedral angle of a wing may be measured by placing a straightedge and level protractor on the front spar. wing root. wing chord.
Where would you find precise information to perform a symmetry alignment check for a particular aircraft? Aircraft Specification or Type Certificate Data Sheet. Manufacturer's service bulletins. Aircraft service or maintenance manual.
Where is the buttock line or buttline of an aircraft? A height measurement left or right of, and perpendicular to, the horizontal centerline. A width measurement left of, and perpendicular to, the vertical centerline. A width measurement left or right of, and parallel to, the vertical centerline.
Where is fuselage station No. 137 located? 137 centimeters aft of the nose or fixed reference line. 137 inches aft of the zero or fixed reference line. Aft of the engine.
Proper wing twist in a sheet metal constructed wing can usually be checked by utilizing a plum bob, string, and straightedge. bubble level and special fixtures described by the manufacturer. straightedge, tape measure, and carpenter's square.
The vast majority of aircraft control cables are terminated with swaged terminals, that must be corrosion treated to show compliance with the manufacturer's requirements after the swaging operation. pull tested to show compliance with the manufacturer's requirements after the swaging operation. checked with a go-no-go gauge before and after, to show compliance with the manufacturer's requirements after the swaging operation.
What nondestructive checking method is normally used to ensure that the correct amount of swaging has taken place when installing swaged-type terminals on aircraft control cable? Check the surface of the swaged portion of the terminal for small cracks which indicate incomplete swaging. Measure the finished length of the terminal barrel and compare with the beginning length. Use a terminal gauge to check the diameter of the swaged portion of the terminal.
When inspecting a control cable turnbuckle for proper installation, determine that no more than four threads are exposed on either side of the turnbuckle barrel. the terminal end threads are visible through the safety hole in the barrel. the safety wire ends are wrapped a minimum of four turns around the terminal end shanks.
If all instructions issued by the swaging tool manufacturer are followed when swaging a cable terminal, the resultant swaged terminal strength should be the full rated strength of the cable. 80 percent of the full rated strength of the cable. 70 percent of the full rated strength of the cable.
Which is an acceptable safety device for a castle nut when installed on secondary structures? Star washer. Lockwasher. Cotter pin.
When used in close proximity to magnetic compasses, cotter pins are made of what material? Corrosion resisting steel. Anodized aluminum alloy. Cadmium-plated low carbon steel.
When a fiber or nylon insert-type, self-locking nut can be threaded on a bolt or stud through the insert with only the fingers, it should be re-torqued frequently. rejected. reused only in a different location.
The purpose of the vertical fin is to provide directional stability. longitudinal stability. lateral stability.
How are changes in direction of a control cable accomplished? Pulleys. Bell cranks. Fairleads.
What is the smallest size cable that may be used in aircraft primary control systems? 1/4 inch. 5/16 inch. 1/8 inch.
After repairing or re-covering a rudder, the surface should be rebalanced to its spanwise axis. in its normal flight position. to manufacturer's specifications.
Placing a piece of cloth around a stainless steel control cable and running it back and forth over the length of the cable is generally a satisfactory method of inspecting for corrosion. broken strands. excessive wear.
The cable-operated control system of an all-metal aircraft, not incorporating a temperature compensating device, has been rigged to the correct tension in a heated hangar. If the aircraft is operated in very cold weather, the cable tension will decrease when the aircraft structure and cables become cold. increase when the aircraft structure and cables become cold. be unaffected if stainless steel cable is installed.
Very often, repairs to a control surface require static rebalancing of the control surface. Generally, flight control balance condition may be determined by checking for equal distribution of weight throughout the control surface. the behavior of the trailing edge when the surface is suspended from its hinge points. suspending the control surface from its leading edge in the stream line position and checking weight distribution.
Excessive wear on both of the sides of a control cable pulley groove is evidence of pulley misalignment. cable misalignment. excessive cable tension.
Fairleads should never deflect the alignment of a cable more than 12°. 8°. 3°.
Where does the breakage of control cable wires occur most frequently? Breakage usually occurs where cables pass over pulleys and through fairleads. Breakage sites are unpredictable and usually occur randomly anywhere along the length of a cable. Breakage usually occurs where cables are swaged to turnbuckle and ball terminals.
With which system is differential control associated? Trim. Aileron. Elevator.
Which statement concerning the 100-hour inspection of an airplane equipped with a push-pull tube-type control system is true? The threaded rod ends should not be adjusted in length for rigging purposes because the rod ends have been properly positioned and staked during manufacture. The terminal end threads of the turnbuckles should be visible through the safety hole in the barrel. The threaded rod ends should be checked for the amount of thread engagement by means of the inspection hole provided.
If control cables are adjusted properly and the control surfaces tend to vibrate, the probable cause is worn attachment fittings. oil can effects on the control surfaces. excessive cable tension.
Aircraft flight control trim systems must be designed and installed so that the pilot can determine the relative position of the trim tab from the cockpit. operating control and the trim tab will always move in the same direction. trim system will disengage or become inoperative if the primary flight control system fails.
Stability about the axis which runs parallel to the line of flight is referred to as longitudinal stability. lateral stability. directional stability.
The purpose of spring tabs or servo tabs is to assist the pilot in moving the control surfaces. contribute to the static balance of the control surface. make in-flight trim adjustments possible.
If the control stick of an aircraft with properly rigged flight controls is moved rearward and to the left, the right aileron will move down and the elevator will move down. up and the elevator will move down. down and the elevator will move up.
Movement of the cockpit control toward the nosedown position during a ground operational check of the elevator trim tab system will cause the trailing edge of the trim tab to move in which direction? Downward regardless of elevator position. Upward regardless of elevator position. Downward if the elevator is in the UP position and upward if the elevator is in the DOWN position.
If the control stick of an aircraft with properly rigged flight controls is moved forward and to the right, the left aileron will move up and the elevator will move down. down and the elevator will move up. down and the elevator will move down.
If the travel of an airplane's controls is correct but the cables are rigged exceptionally tight, what probable effect will this have when flying the airplane? The airplane will tend to fall off on one wing. The airplane will be heavy on the controls. The pilot will be unable to fly the airplane hands-off.
During inspection of the flight control system of an airplane equipped with differential-type aileron control, side-to-side movement of the control stick will cause each aileron to have a greater up travel (from the streamlined position) than down travel. each aileron to have greater down travel (from the streamlined position) than up travel. the left aileron to move through a greater number of degrees (from full up to full down) than the right aileron.
A universal propeller protractor used to measure the degrees of aileron travel should be zeroed with the aileron in the NEUTRAL position. with the aileron in the DOWN position. when the aircraft is in a level flight attitude.
The universal propeller protractor can be used to measure propeller track. aspect ratio of a wing. degrees of flap travel.
(Refer to Figure 8.) Identify the cable that is used in primary control systems and in other places where operation over pulleys is frequent. 2 1 3.
A tension regulator in the flight control cable system of a large all-metal aircraft is used primarily to increase the cable tension in cold weather. provide a means of changing cable tension in flight. retain a set tension.
(Refer to Figure 9.) When the outside air temperature is 80°F, select the acceptable 3/16 cable tension range. 130 pounds minimum, 140 pounds maximum. 117 pounds minimum, 143 pounds maximum. 120 pounds minimum, 140 pounds maximum.
Differential control on an aileron system means that the down travel is more than the up travel. the up travel is more than the down travel. one aileron on one wing travels further up than the aileron on the opposite wing to adjust for wash-in and wash-out.
Why is it generally necessary to jack an aircraft indoors for weighing? So aircraft may be placed in a level position. So that air currents do not destabilize the scales. So weighing scales may be calibrated to 0 pounds.
Which should be accomplished before jacking an aircraft? Install critical stress panels or plates. Determine that the fuel tanks are empty. Make sure the aircraft is leveled laterally.
When installing a castle nut, start alignment with the cotter pin hole at the minimum recommended torque without friction drag torque. maximum recommended torque minus friction drag torque. minimum recommended torque plus friction drag torque.
Which statement about Airworthiness Directives (AD's) is true? AD's are information alert bulletins issued by the airframe, powerplant, or component manufacturer. Compliance with an AD is not mandatory unless the aircraft affected is for hire. Compliance with an applicable AD is mandatory and must be recorded in the maintenance records.
When overhauling electrical equipment, all necessary information should be obtained from the aircraft maintenance manual. maintenance instructions published by the aircraft and/or equipment manufacturer. illustrated parts manual for the aircraft.
Which statement is correct regarding an aircraft that is found to be unairworthy after an annual inspection, due to an item requiring a major repair (assuming approved data is used to accomplish the repair)? An appropriately rated mechanic may accomplish the repair, and an IA may approve the aircraft for return to service. An appropriately rated mechanic or repair station may repair the defect and approve the aircraft for return to service. Only the person who performed the annual inspection may approve the aircraft for return to service, after the major repair.
Radio equipment installations made in accordance with Supplemental Type Certificate data require approval for return to service by a field approval from the FAA. by an airframe and powerplant mechanic. by the holder of an inspection authorization.
An aircraft may be flown beyond the 100-hour inspection requirement to reach a place where the inspection can be accomplished, provided it does not exceed 10 flight hours. has a special flight permit. does not exceed 15 flight hours.
Where would you find the recommended statement for recording the approval or disapproval for return to service of an aircraft after a 100-hour or annual inspection? 14 CFR Part 65. 14 CFR Part 43. 14 CFR Part 91.
The maximum time a 100-hour inspection may be extended is 10 hours. 10 hours with a special flight permit. 12 hours with a special flight permit.
Which statement is correct when an aircraft has not been approved for return to service after an annual inspection because of several items requiring minor repair? Only the person who performed the annual inspection may approve the aircraft for return to service. An appropriately rated mechanic may repair the defects and approve the aircraft for return to service. An appropriately rated mechanic may repair the defects, but an IA must approve the aircraft for return to service.
An aircraft that is due an annual inspection may be flown if a special permit has been issued for the aircraft. for the purpose of performing maintenance. for a period of time not to exceed 10 hours.
For an individual (not a repair station) to conduct a complete 100-hour inspection on an aircraft and approve it for return to service requires a mechanic certificate with an airframe rating only. airframe and powerplant ratings. airframe and powerplant ratings with an inspection authorization.
Where would you find the operating conditions that make a 100-hour inspection mandatory? 14 CFR Part 91. 14 CFR Part 43. AC 43.13-2A.
Large airplanes and turbine-powered multiengine airplanes operated under Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, General Operating and Flight Rules, must be inspected in accordance with an inspection program authorized under Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subpart E. in accordance with a continuous airworthiness maintenance program (camp program) authorized under Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subpart E. in accordance with the progressive inspection requirements of Federal Aviation Regulation Section 91.409(d).
Airworthiness Directives (ADs) are designed to notify the mechanic of an approved alternate method to perform a maintenance task other than specified in the aircraft maintenance manual. aircraft owners and operators of methods, techniques, and acceptable practices for inspection and alterations of aircraft. aircraft owners and other interested persons of unsafe conditions and prescribes the condition under which the product may continue to be operated.
Exposure to and/or storage near which of the following is considered harmful to aircraft tires? 1. Low humidity. 2. Fuel. 3. Oil. 4. Ozone. 5. Helium. 6. Electrical equipment. 7. Hydraulic fluid. 8. Solvents. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8. 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8.
What would be the effect if the piston return spring broke in a brake master cylinder? The brakes would become spongy. The brake travel would become excessive. The brakes would drag.
In brake service work, the term 'bleeding brakes' is the process of withdrawing air only from the system. withdrawing fluid from the system for the purpose of removing air that has entered the system. replacing small amounts of fluid in reservoir.
To prevent a very rapid extension of an oleo shock strut after initial compression resulting from landing impact, various types of valves or orifices are used which restrict the reverse fluid flow. the metering pin gradually reduces the size of the orifice as the shock strut extends. the air is forced through a restricted orifice in the reverse direction.
A pilot reports the right brake on an aircraft is spongy when the brake pedal is depressed in a normal manner. The probable cause is the hydraulic master cylinder piston is sticking. air in the brake hydraulic system. the hydraulic master cylinder piston return spring is weak.
Aside from an external leak in the line, what will cause parking brakes to continually bleed off pressure? An internal leak in the master cylinder. Insufficient hydraulic fluid in the reservoir. Glazed brake linings.
Why do most aircraft tire manufacturers recommend that the tubes in newly installed tires be first inflated, fully deflated, and then reinflated to the correct pressure? To allow the tube to position itself correctly inside the tire. To eliminate all the air between the tube and the inside of the tire. To test the entire assembly for leaks.
The metering pins in oleo shock struts serve to lock the struts in the DOWN position. retard the flow of oil as the struts are compressed. meter the proper amount of air in the struts.
What action should be taken whenever maintenance is performed that will affect the landing gear system performance? A test flight should be performed to conduct an operational check. A technician with an inspection authorization should perform a visual inspection. The aircraft should be placed on jacks and a retraction test should be performed.
When working with high pressure, high performance tires, why is it recommended to deflate the tires when removing wheels from the axle? To relieve the strain on the wheel retaining nut and axle threads. To ensure safety in case of a defective wheel or broken tie bolts. To reduce the size of the tire for ease of removal.
The braking action of a Cleveland disk brake is accomplished by compressing a rotating brake disk between two opposite brake linings. How is equal pressure on both sides of the rotating disk assured? By allowing the brake rotor to float to automatically equalize as pressure is applied to the rotor. By allowing the caliper to float to automatically equalize as pressure is applied to the rotor. By allowing the brake linings to automatically equalize as pressure is applied to the rotor.
If it is determined that spongy brake action is not caused by air in the brake system, what is the next most likely cause? Worn brake lining. Internal leakage in the master cylinder. Deteriorated flexible hoses.
Many brake types can be adapted to operate mechanically or hydraulically. Which type is not adaptable to mechanical operation? Single-disk spot type. Single-servo type. Expander-tube type.
A brake debooster valve is installed in systems where the high pressure of the hydraulic system (3000 psi) is used to operate brakes that are designed to work with lower pressure. that are used in conjunction with an antiskid system. that are used on aircraft having high landing speeds.
A stripe or mark applied to a wheel rim and extending onto the sidewall of a tube-type tire is a slippage mark. wheel-to-tire balance mark. wheel weight reference mark.
When bleeding aircraft brakes, one of the indications that the air has been purged from the system is partial brake pedal travel. full brake pedal travel. firm brake pedals.
Overinflated aircraft tires may cause damage to the brake linings. wheel hub. wheel flange.
Debooster valves are used in brake systems primarily to ensure rapid application and release of the brakes. reduce brake pressure and maintain static pressure. reduce the pressure and release the brakes rapidly.
The repair for an out-of-tolerance toe-in condition of main landing gear wheels determined not to be the result of bent or twisted components consists of shimming the axle in the oleo trunnion. inserting, removing, or changing the location of washers or spacers at the center pivotal point of the scissor torque links. placing shims or spacers behind the bearing of the out-of-tolerance wheel or wheels.
On an air valve core stem, what indicates high-pressure type? An embossed letter 'NP.' An embossed letter 'HP.' An embossed letter 'H.'.
The primary purpose for balancing aircraft wheel assemblies is to prevent heavy spots and reduce vibration. distribute the aircraft weight properly. reduce excessive wear and turbulence.
Power boost brake systems are used on aircraft that have high landing speeds. low normal hydraulic system pressure. more than one brake assembly per axle.
On all aircraft equipped with retractable landing gear, some means must be provided to retract and extend the landing gear if the normal operating mechanism fails. extend the landing gear if the normal operating mechanism fails. prevent the throttle from being reduced below a safe power setting while the landing gear is retracted.
An automatic damping action occurs at the steering damper if for any reason the flow of high-pressure fluid is removed from the outlet of the steering damper. inlet of the steering damper. replenishing check valve.
What is the purpose of the torque links attached to the cylinder and piston of a landing gear oleo strut? Limit compression stroke. Hold the strut in place. Maintain correct wheel alignment.
The removal, installation, and repair of landing gear tires by the holder of a private pilot certificate on an aircraft owned or operated is considered to be a violation of the Federal Aviation Regulations. a minor repair. preventive maintenance.
Aircraft brakes requiring a large volume of fluid to operate the brakes generally use independent master cylinder systems. do not use brake system accumulators. use power brake control valves.
What is one effect a restricted compensator port of a master cylinder will have on a brake system? The brakes will operate normally. The reservoir will be filled by reverse flow. The restriction will cause slow release of the brakes.
When an air/oil type of landing gear shock strut is used, the initial shock of landing is cushioned by compression of the air charge. the fluid being forced through a metered opening. compression of the fluid.
Internal leakage in a brake master cylinder unit can cause fading brakes. slow release of brakes. the pedal to slowly creep down while pedal pressure is applied.
A sleeve, spacer, or bumper ring is incorporated in a landing gear oleo shock strut to limit the extension of the torque arm. limit the extension stroke. reduce the rebound effect.
The purpose of a sequence valve in a hydraulic retractable landing gear system is to prevent heavy landing gear from falling too rapidly upon extension. provide a means of disconnecting the normal source of hydraulic power and connecting the emergency source of power. ensure operation of the landing gear and gear doors in the proper order.
The pressure source for power brakes is the main hydraulic system. the power brake reservoir. a master cylinder.
Which statement is true with respect to an aircraft equipped with hydraulically operated multiple-disk type brake assemblies? There are no minimum or maximum disk clearance checks required due to the use of self-compensating cylinder assemblies. Do not set parking brake when brakes are hot. No parking brake provisions are possible for this type of brake assembly.
What type of valve is used in the brake actuating line to isolate the emergency brake system from the normal power brake control valve system? A bypass valve. An orifice check valve. A shuttle valve.
When servicing an air/oil shock strut with MIL-5606 the strut should be collapsed and fluid added at the filler opening. fully extended and fluid added at the filler opening. partially extended and fluid added at the filler opening.
Instructions concerning the type of fluid and amount of air pressure to be put in a shock strut are found on the airplane data plate. in the aircraft operations limitations. in the aircraft manufacturer's service manual.
The purpose of a relief valve in a brake system is to reduce pressure for brake application. prevent the tire from skidding. compensate for thermal expansion.
Aircraft tire pressure should be checked using only a push on stick-type gauge having 1-pound increments. at least once a week or more often. as soon as possible after each flight.
If the extended longitudinal axis of the main landing gear wheel assemblies intersects aft of the aircraft, the wheels can be termed as having toe-out. toe-in. negative camber.
What is the purpose of a compensating port or valve in a brake master cylinder of an independent brake system? Permits the fluid to flow toward or away from the reservoir as temperature changes. Assists in the master cylinder piston return. Prevents fluid from flowing back to the reservoir.
If an aircraft shock strut (air/oil type) bottoms upon initial landing contact, but functions correctly during taxi, the most probable cause is low fluid. low air charge. a restricted metering pin orifice.
What is the function of a cam incorporated in a nose gear shock strut? Provides an internal shimmy damper. Straightens the nosewheel. Provides steering of aircraft during ground operation.
Extension of an oleo shock strut is measured to determine the amount of oil in the strut. physical condition of the strut itself. proper operating position of the strut.
Debooster cylinders are used in brake systems primarily to reduce brake pressure and maintain static pressure. relieve excessive fluid and ensure a positive release. reduce the pressure to the brake and increase the volume of fluid flow.
If a shock strut bottoms after it has been properly serviced, the strut should be disassembled and the metering pin orifice plate replaced. air pressure should be increased. strut should be removed, disassembled, and inspected.
A high-speed aircraft tire with a sound cord body and bead may be recapped a maximum of three times. only by the tire manufacturer. an indefinite number of times.
If an airplane equipped with master cylinders and single-disk brakes has excessive brake pedal travel, but the brakes are hard and effective, the probable cause is the master cylinder one-way cup is leaking. worn brake linings. worn brake disk causing excessive clearance between the notches on the perimeter of the disk and the splines or keys on the wheel.
The correct inflation pressure for an aircraft tire can be obtained from tire manufacturer's specifications. the aircraft service manual. the information stamped on the aircraft wheel.
What should be checked when a shock strut bottoms during a landing? Air pressure. Packing seals for correct installation. Fluid level.
How is it determined in a master cylinder brake system that all of the air has been purged from the system? By operating a hydraulic unit and watching the system pressure gauge for smooth, full scale deflection. By depressing the brake and noting that the brake is firm and not spongy. By measuring the amount of fluid return to the master cylinder upon brake release.
The left brake is dragging excessively on an airplane on which no recent brake service work has been performed. The most probable cause is foreign particles stuck in the master cylinder compensating port. excessively worn brake linings. low fluid supply in the brake system reservoir.
If a brake debooster is used in a hydraulic brake system, its position in the system will be between the pressure manifold of the main hydraulic system and the power brake control valve. between the brake control valve and the brake actuating cylinder. in the brake pressure line between the brake pedal and the brake accumulator.
The hydraulic packing seals used in a landing gear shock strut are generally designed to be compatible with more than one type of fluid. kept from direct contact with fluid by teflon or nylon backup rings. used only with a specific type of fluid.
Lockout deboosters are primarily pressure reducing valves that allow full debooster piston travel without fluid from the high pressure side entering the low pressure chamber. cannot allow full debooster piston travel without fluid from the high pressure side entering the low pressure chamber. must be bled separately after brake bleeding has been completed.
A close inspection of a fusible plug reveals the core has experienced some deformation. What is the appropriate maintenance procedure? Replace all the fusible plugs. Replace the affected fusible plugs. Replace with new wheel assembly.
Chines are used on some aircraft nose wheel tires to help nose gear extension at higher air speeds. reduce the possibility of hydroplaning. deflect water away from the fuselage.
The best safeguards against heat buildup in aircraft tires are proper tire inflation, minimum braking, and ground rolls into the wind. short ground rolls, slow taxi speeds, minimum braking, and proper tire inflation. minimum braking, proper tire inflation, and long ground rolls.
The fusible plugs installed in some aircraft wheels will indicate tire tread separation. prevent overinflation. melt at a specified elevated temperature.
What action, if any, should be taken when there is a difference of more than 5 pounds of air pressure in tires mounted as duals? Replace both tires. Correct the discrepancy and enter in the aircraft records. Replace the tire with the lowest pressure.
How long should you wait after a flight before checking tire pressure? At least 2 hours (3 hours in hot weather). At least 3 hours (4 hours in hot weather). At least 4 hours (5 hours in hot weather).
Excessive wear in the shoulder area of an aircraft tire is an indication of overinflation. excessive toe-in. underinflation.
Excessive wear in the center of the tread of an aircraft tire is an indication of misalignment. underinflation. overinflation.
When servicing an empty shock strut with fluid, the strut should be completely compressed and extended several times to ensure the piston rod and wiper are lubricated with hydraulic fluid. all excess hydraulic fluid is forced out of the strut. proper packing ring seating and removal of air bubbles.
In shock struts, chevron seals are used to absorb bottoming effect. prevent oil from escaping. serve as a bearing surface.
On most aircraft, the oil level of an air and oil shock strut is checked by removing the oil filler plug and inserting a gauge. measuring the length of the strut extension with a certain air pressure in the strut. releasing the air and seeing that the oil is to the level of the filler plug.
A pilot reports that the brake pedals have excessive travel. A probable cause is weak return springs lack of fluid in the brake system. oil or some foreign matter on the brake rotors and linings.
When will a continuous horn provide a warning in the cockpit? When the throttle is retarded and gear is not down and locked. When the throttle is advanced and gear is down and locked. When the throttle is retarded and gear is down and locked.
An electric motor used to raise and lower a landing gear would most likely be a shunt field series-wound motor. split field shunt-wound motor. split field series-wound motor.
When installing a chevron-type seal in an aircraft hydraulic cylinder, the open side of the seal should face opposite the direction of fluid pressure. up or forward when the unit is installed in a horizontal position. the direction of fluid pressure.
Nose gear centering cams are used in many retractable landing gear systems. The primary purpose of the centering device is to align the nosewheel prior to touchdown. engage the nosewheel steering. center the nosewheel before it enters the wheel well.
What device in a hydraulic system with a constant-delivery pump allows circulation of the fluid when no demands are on the system? Pressure relief valve. Shuttle valve. Pressure regulator.
A fully-charged hydraulic accumulator provides air pressure to the various hydraulic components. a source for additional hydraulic power when heavy demands are placed on the system. positive fluid flow to the pump inlet.
A hydraulic system referred to as a 'power pack' system will have an engine-driven pump for greater pressure. have all hydraulic power components located in one unit. have a pressurized reservoir.
A flexible hydraulic hose identified as MIL-H-8788 will have a stripe running the length of the hose. This stripe is installed without excessive twisting. for high pressure fluids with a flexing range. suitable for a wide temperature range.
An O-ring intended for use in a hydraulic system using MIL-H-5606 (mineral base) fluid will be marked with a blue stripe or dot. one or more white dots. a white and yellow stripe.
What condition would most likely cause excessive fluctuation of the pressure gauge when the hydraulic pump is operating? Accumulator air pressure low. Inadequate supply of fluid. System relief valve sticking closed.
A filter incorporating specially treated cellulose paper is identified as a sediment trap. cuno filter. micronic filter.
The purpose of an orifice check valve is to relieve pressure to a sensitive component. restrict flow in one direction and allow free flow in the other. relieve pressure in one direction and prevent flow in the other direction.
(Refer to Figure 10.) The trunnion nut on an aircraft landing gear requires a torque of 320 inch-pounds. To reach the nut, a 2-inch straight adapter must be used on an 18-inch torque wrench. How many foot-pounds will be indicated on the torque wrench when the required torque of the nut is reached? 24 28.8. 22.
A special bolt in a landing gear attachment requires a torque value of 440 inch-pounds. How many foot-pounds are required? 36.8. 38 36.6.
What is the minimum amount of time to wait for tires to cool before checking tire pressure? 3 hours. 2 hours. 1 hour.
To protect seals from damage when installed over a threaded section, the threaded section should be coated with a heavy grease. covered with tape. covered with a suitable sleeve.
Which of the following is the most commonly used seal to prevent internal and external leakage in both directions of a hydraulic unit? O-ring. V-ring. U-ring.
Which of the following allows fluid to flow unimpeded in one direction but prevents fluid flow in the other direction? Check valve. Sequence valve. Relief valve.
Select the valve used in a hydraulic system that directs pressurized fluid to one end of an actuating cylinder and simultaneously directs return fluid to the reservoir from the other end. Sequence. Shuttle. Selector.
What function does the absolute pressure regulator perform in the pneumatic power system? Regulates the compressor outlet air pressure to stabilize the system pressure. Regulates the pneumatic system pressure to protect the moisture separator from internal explosion. Regulates the compressor inlet air to provide a stabilized source of air for the compressor.
(1) Relief valves are used in pneumatic systems as damage-preventing units. (2) Check valves are used in both hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Regarding the above statements, both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. neither No. 1 nor No. 2 is true. only No. 1 is true.
One of the distinguishing characteristics of an open-center selector valve used in a hydraulic system is that fluid flows through the valve in the OFF position. fluid flows in three directions in the ON position. a limited amount of fluid flows in one direction and no fluid flows in the opposite direction.
What type of packings should be used in hydraulic components to be installed in a system containing Skydrol? AN packings made of natural rubber. Packing materials made for ester base fluids. AN packings made of neoprene.
Relief valves are used in pneumatic systems for one direction flow control. to reduce the rate of airflow. as damage-preventing units.
An aircraft pneumatic system, which incorporates an engine-driven multistage reciprocating compressor, also requires an oil separator. a surge chamber. a moisture separator.
The removal of air from an aircraft hydraulic system is generally accomplished through automatic bleed valves on individual components during system operation. by operating the various hydraulic components through several cycles. by allowing the system to remain inoperative for several hours.
Pneumatic systems utilize thermal valves. relief valves. shutter valves.
The component in the hydraulic system that is used to direct the flow of fluid is the check valve. orifice check valve. selector valve.
What type of selector valve is one of the most commonly used in hydraulic systems to provide for simultaneous flow of fluid into and out of a connected actuating unit? Four-port, closed-center valve. Three-port, four-way valve. Two-port, open-center valve.
What is the purpose of using backup rings with O-rings in hydraulic systems above 1,500 PSI? Prevent internal and external leakage of all moving parts within a hydraulic system. Provide a seal between two parts of a unit which move in relation to each other. Prevent high pressure from extruding the seal between the moving and stationary part.
The purpose of the pressure regulator in a hydraulic system is to maintain system operating pressure within a predetermined range and to unload the pump. regulate the amount of fluid flow to the actuating cylinders within the system. prevent failure of components or rupture of hydraulic lines under excessive pressure.
A flexible sealing element subject to motion is a compound. packing. gasket.
Which characteristics apply to aircraft hydraulic systems? 1. Minimum maintenance requirements. 2. Lightweight. 3. About 80 percent operating efficiency (20 percent loss due to fluid friction). 4. Simple to inspect. 1, 2, 3, 4. 1, 3, 4. 1, 2, 4.
If a rigid tube is too short for the flare to reach its seat before tightening, pulling it into place by tightening is acceptable. may distort the flare. may distort the cone.
The installation of a new metal hydraulic line should be made with a straight tube to withstand the shocks and vibration to which it will be subjected. a straight tube to permit proper alignment of the fitting and thereby reduce fluid loss through leakage. enough bends to allow the tube to expand and contract with temperature changes and to absorb vibration.
Extrusion of an O-ring seal is prevented in a high-pressure system by the use of a backup ring on the side of the O-ring next to the pressure. U-ring on the side of the O-ring away from the pressure. backup ring on the side of the O-ring away from the pressure.
What is one advantage of piston-type hydraulic motors over electric motors? They are considerably quieter in operation. There is no fire hazard if the motor is stalled. They work satisfactorily over a wider temperature range.
Generally, the first step in removing an accumulator from an aircraft is to relieve system pressure. discharge the preload. drain the reservoir.
(Refer to Figure 11.) An AN flared tube fitting is referred to in which picture? 1 2 3.
(Refer to Figure 12.) Which illustration(s) show(s) the correct spiral for teflon backup rings? 1 and 2. 3 1 and 3.
If a hydraulic brake system uses neoprene rubber packing materials, the correct hydraulic fluid to service the system is mineral base oil. synthetic base oil. phosphate ester base oil.
The internal resistance of a fluid which tends to prevent it from flowing is called volatility. viscosity. stability.
What is the viscosity of hydraulic fluid? The increase in volume of a fluid due to temperature change. The fluid's ability to resist oxidation and deterioration for long periods. The internal resistance of a fluid which tends to prevent it from flowing.
Which is a characteristic of petroleum base hydraulic fluid? Flammable under normal conditions. Compatible to natural rubber seals and packings. Nonflammable under all conditions.
(1) When servicing aircraft hydraulic systems, use the type fluid specified in the aircraft manufacturer's maintenance manual or on the instruction plate affixed to the reservoir or unit. (2) Hydraulic fluids for aircraft are dyed a specific color for each type of fluid. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
Petroleum base hydraulic fluid is which color? Purple. Blue. Red.
Which of the following is adversely affected by atmospheric humidity if left unprotected? 1. MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid. 2. Skydrol hydraulic fluid. 3. None of the above. 1 and 2. 3 2.
Which is a characteristic of synthetic base hydraulic fluid? Low moisture retention. High flash point. Low flash point.
Which statement about fluids is correct? Any fluid will completely fill its container. All fluids are considered to be highly compressible. All fluids readily transmit pressure.
Two types of hydraulic fluids currently being used in civil aircraft are mineral base, and phosphate ester base. mixed mineral base and phosphate ester base. petroleum base and mixed mineral base.
Which of the following lists only desirable properties of a good hydraulic fluid that has chemical stability? High viscosity, low flash point, high fire point. High flash point, low viscosity, low fire point. Low viscosity, high flash point, high fire point.
Characteristics of MIL-H-8446 (Skydrol 500 A & B) hydraulic fluid are blue color, phosphate ester base, fire resistant, butyl rubber seals. light purple color, phosphate ester base, fire resistant, butyl rubber seals. light green color, phosphate ester base, fire resistant, butyl rubber seals.
Where can information be obtained about the compatibility of fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with aircraft materials? Fluid manufacturer's technical bulletins. Aircraft manufacturer's specifications. AC 43.13-1A.
Characteristics of MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid are light purple color, phosphate ester base, fire resistant, uses butyl rubber seals. blue color, will burn, uses natural rubber seals. red color, petroleum base, will burn, uses synthetic rubber seals.
Characteristics of MIL-H-7644 hydraulic fluid are red color, petroleum base, will burn, synthetic rubber seals. light purple color, phosphate ester base, fire resistant, butyl rubber seals. blue color, vegetable base, will burn, natural rubber seals.
If an aircraft hydraulic system requires mineral base hydraulic fluid, but phosphate ester base hydraulic fluid is used, what will be the effect on the system? No effect. System will be contaminated, fluids will not blend, and the seals will fail. System will be contaminated, fluids will not blend, but there will be no seal problem.
What is used to flush a system normally serviced with MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid? Methyl ethyl ketone or kerosene. Naphtha or varsol. Lacquer thinner or trichlorethylene.
Components containing phosphate ester-base hydraulic fluid may be cleaned with Stoddard solvent. Naphtha. Carbon tetrachloride.
How can the proper hydraulic fluid to be used in an airplane be determined? By referring to the Pilot Operating Handbook. By consulting the aircraft's Type Certificate Data Sheet. By consulting the aircraft manufacturer's service manual.
Phosphate ester base hydraulic fluid is very susceptible to contamination from rapid changes in temperature. water in the atmosphere. icing conditions.
(1) Materials which are Skydrol compatible or resistant include most common aircraft metals and polyurethane and epoxy paints. (2) Skydrol hydraulic fluid is compatible with nylon and natural fibers. Regarding the above statements, both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. neither No. 1 nor No. 2 is true. only No. 1 is true.
The hydraulic component that automatically directs fluid from either the normal source or an emergency source to an actuating cylinder is called a bypass valve. shuttle valve. crossflow valve.
The primary purpose of a hydraulic actuating unit is to transform fluid motion into mechanical pressure and back again. fluid pressure into useful work. energy from one form to another.
The primary function of the flap overload valve is to prevent the flaps from being lowered at airspeeds which would impose excessive structural loads. cause the flap segments located on opposite sides of the aircraft centerline to extend and retract together so that the aircraft will not become aerodynamically unbalanced to the extent that it becomes uncontrollable. boost normal system pressure to the flaps in order to overcome the air loads acting on the relatively large flap area.
A unit which transforms hydraulic pressure into linear motion is called an actuating cylinder. an accumulator. a hydraulic pump.
If it is necessary to adjust several pressure regulating valves in a hydraulic system, what particular sequence, if any, should be followed? Units most distant from the hydraulic pump should be adjusted first. Units with the highest pressure settings are adjusted first. Units are independent of each other, and therefore, no particular sequence is necessary.
If an aircraft's constant-pressure hydraulic system cycles more frequently than usual and no fluid leakage can be detected, the most probable cause is a too high relief valve setting. pump volume output too high. low accumulator air preload.
Unloading valves are used with many engine-driven hydraulic pumps to dampen out pressure surges. relieve the pump pressure. relieve system pressure.
What safety device is usually located between the driving unit and hydraulic pump drive shaft? Thermal relief valve. Pump motor safety switch. Pump drive coupling shear section.
Which valve installed in a hydraulic system will have the highest pressure setting? Pressure regulator valve. Main relief valve. Thermal relief valve.
Excluding lines, which components are required to make up a simple hydraulic system? Actuator, pressure reservoir, accumulator, and selector valve. Pump, reservoir, selector valve, and actuator. Pump, reservoir, relief valve, and shuttle valve.
Most variable displacement aircraft hydraulic pumps in use must be driven at a nearly constant speed in order to be practical for use. are not practical for use with a closed-center hydraulic system. contain a built-in means of system pressure regulation.
In a gear-type hydraulic pump, a mechanical safety device incorporated to protect the pump from overload is the bypass valve. check valve. shear pin.
After installation of a rebuilt hydraulic hand pump, it is found that the handle cannot be moved in the pumping direction (pressure stroke). The most likely cause is an incorrectly installed hand pump inport check valve. inport/outport orifice check valve. hand pump outport check valve.
Pressure is a term used to indicate the force per unit area. Pressure is usually expressed in pounds per square inch. pounds per inch. pounds per cubic inch.
If two actuating cylinders which have the same cross-sectional area but different lengths of stroke are connected to the same source of hydraulic pressure, they will exert different amounts of force but will move at the same rate of speed. equal amounts of force but will move at different rates of speed. equal amounts of force and will move at the same rate of speed.
Using a hand pump, pressure of 100 PSI has been built up in a hydraulic system. The hand pump piston is 1 inch in diameter. A 1/2-inch line connects the hand pump to an actuating cylinder 2 inches in diameter. What is the pressure in the line between the hand pump and the actuator? 100 PSI. 150 PSI. 200 PSI.
Heat exchanger cooling units are required in some aircraft hydraulic systems because of fluid flammability. high pressures and high rates of fluid flow. the high heat generated from braking.
Which is true regarding the ground check of a flap operating mechanism which has just been installed? If the time required to operate the mechanism increases with successive operations, it indicates the air is being worked out of the system. If the time required to operate the mechanism decreases with successive operations, it indicates the air is being worked out of the system. All hydraulic lines and components should be checked for leaks by applying soapy water to all connections.
A hydraulic system operational check during ground runup of an aircraft indicates that the wing flaps cannot be lowered using the main hydraulic system, but can be lowered by using the emergency hand pump. Which is the most likely cause? The flap selector valve has a severe internal leak. The pressure accumulator is not supplying pressure to the system. The fluid level in the reservoir is low.
Many hydraulic reservoirs contain a small quantity of fluid which is not available to the main system pump. This fluid is retained to prime the main system. supply fluid to the auxiliary pump. supply fluid to the pressure accumulator.
The unit in a hydraulic system that requires a certain action to be completed before another action can begin is called a check valve. sequence valve. snubber valve.
The purpose of a hydraulic pressure regulator is to prevent the system pressure from rising above a predetermined amount due to thermal expansion. boost the pressure in portions of the system. relieve the pump of its load when no actuating units are being operated.
Severe kickback of the emergency hydraulic hand pump handle during the normal intake stroke will indicate which of the following? The hand pump inlet check valve is sticking open. The main system relief valve is set too high. The hand pump outlet check valve is sticking open.
What type of valve in an aircraft hydraulic system permits fluid to flow freely in one direction, but restricts the rate at which fluid is allowed to flow in the other direction? Check valve. Orifice restrictor. Orifice check valve.
The main system pressure relief valve in a simple hydraulic system equipped with a power control valve should be adjusted with the power control valve held in the CLOSED position. while one or more actuating units are in operation. with the power control valve in the OPEN position.
A hydraulic accumulator is charged with an air preload of 1,000 PSI. When a hydraulic system pressure of 3,000 PSI is developed, the pressure on the air side of the accumulator will be 1,000 PSI. 3,000 PSI. 4,000 PSI.
How is the air in a hydraulic accumulator prevented from entering the fluid system? By forcing the oil/air mixture through a centrifugal separating chamber that prevents the air from leaving the accumulator. By physically separating the air chamber from the oil chamber with a flexible or movable separator. By including a valve that automatically closes when the fluid level lowers to a preset amount.
After a hydraulic accumulator has been installed and air chamber charged, the main system hydraulic pressure gauge will not show a hydraulic pressure reading until at least one selector valve has been actuated to allow fluid to flow into the fluid side of the accumulator. the air pressure has become equal to the fluid pressure. the fluid side of the accumulator has been charged.
Which must be done before adjusting the relief valve of a main hydraulic system incorporating a pressure regulator? Eliminate the action of the unloading valve. Adjust all other system relief valves which have a lower pressure setting. Manually unseat all system check valves to allow unrestricted flow in both directions.
Which seals are used with petroleum base hydraulic fluids? Polyester. Butyl rubber. Buna-N.
The air that is expended and no longer needed when an actuating unit is operated in a pneumatic system is exhausted or dumped, usually overboard. returned to the compressor. charged or pressurized for use during the next operating cycle.
Some hydraulic systems incorporate a device which is designed to remain open to allow a normal fluid flow in the line, but closed if the fluid flow increases above an established rate. This device is generally referred to as a hydraulic fuse. flow regulator. metering check valve.
When hydraulic system pressure control and relief units fail to function properly, how are most systems protected against overpressure? A shear section on the main hydraulic pump drive shaft. One or more hydraulic fuses installed in the pressure and return lines. A shuttle valve interconnecting the main and emergency systems.
A worn hydraulic pump shaft seal can normally be detected by hydraulic fluid flowing from the pump drain line. evidence of hydraulic fluid combined in the engine oil. the presence of hydraulic fluid around the pump mounting pad.
If an engine-driven hydraulic pump of the correct capacity fails to maintain normal system pressure during the operation of a cowl flap actuating unit, the probable cause is mechanical interference to the movement of the cowl flap. a partial restriction in the inport of the selector valve. restriction in the pump outlet.
Before removing the filler cap of a pressurized hydraulic reservoir, in order to service the system, you must relieve the hydraulic system pressure. pressurize all hydraulic components in the system. relieve the air pressure.
What happens to the output of a constant-displacement hydraulic pump when the hydraulic system pressure regulator diverts the fluid from the system to the reservoir? The output pressure remains the same, but the volume reduces. The output pressure reduces, but the volume remains the same. The output pressure and volume remain the same.
Hydraulic system accumulators serve which of the following functions? 1. Dampen pressure surges. 2. Supplement the system pump when demand is beyond the pump's capacity. 3. Store power for limited operation of components if the pump is not operating. 4. Ensure a continuous supply of fluid to the pump. 2, 3. 1, 2, 3, 4. 1, 2, 3.
Chattering of the hydraulic pump during operation is an indication of low accumulator preload. that the main system relief valve is sticking open. that air is entering the pump.
Quick-disconnect couplings in hydraulic systems provide a means of easily replacing hydraulic lines in areas where leaks are common. quickly connecting and disconnecting hydraulic lines and eliminate the possibility of contaminates entering the system. quickly connecting and disconnecting hydraulic lines without loss of fluid or entrance of air into the system.
Which seal/material is used with phosphate ester base hydraulic fluids? Silicone rubber. Butyl rubber. Neoprene rubber.
A hydraulic pump is a constant-displacement type if it produces an unregulated constant pressure. produces a continuous positive pressure. delivers a uniform rate of fluid flow.
A hydraulic motor converts fluid pressure to linear motion. rotary motion. angular motion.
A crossflow valve which is designed to bypass fluid from one side of an actuating cylinder to the other side, under certain conditions, may be found in some aircraft installed in the flap overload system. engine cowl flap system. landing gear system.
Hydraulic fluid filtering elements constructed of porous paper are normally cleaned and reused. discarded at regular intervals and replaced with new filtering elements. not approved for use in certificated aircraft.
A pilot reports that when the hydraulic pump is running, the pressure is normal. However, when the pump is stopped, no hydraulic pressure is available. This is an indication of a leaking selector valve. low accumulator fluid preload. leaking accumulator air valve.
If fluid is added to a reservoir in a constant pressure hydraulic system while the system is pressurized, what will result? Fluid will spray violently out of the reservoir when the filler neck cap is removed. The fluid level will increase when system pressure is reduced. Air will be drawn into the system, when the filler neck cap is removed.
In a hydraulic system that has a reservoir pressurized with turbine-engine compressor bleed air, which unit reduces the air pressure between the engine and reservoir? Relief valve. Air bleed relief valve. Air pressure regulator.
What is the main purpose of a pressurized reservoir in a hydraulic system? Prevent tank collapse at altitude. Prevent hydraulic pump cavitation. Prevent hydraulic fluid from foaming.
One of the main advantages of skydrol is its wide operating temperature. high operating pressure. inability to mix with water.
Hydraulic fluid reservoirs are sometimes designed with a standpipe in one of the outlet ports in order to assure emergency supply of fluid. The outlet port with the standpipe in it furnishes fluid to the emergency pump when the fluid supply to the normal system has been depleted. emergency pump at any time it is required. normal system power pump.
An emergency supply of fluid is often retained in the main hydraulic system reservoir by the use of a standpipe. The supply line is connected to the inlet of the main hydraulic system. inlet of the emergency pump. outlet of the main system pump.
To check the air charge in a hydraulic accumulator, reduce all hydraulic pressure, then observe the reading on the accumulator air gauge. observe the first reading on the hydraulic system gauge while operating a component in the system. read it directly from the auxiliary pressure gauge.
How would the air pressure charge in the accumulator be determined if the engine is inoperative, but the system still has hydraulic pressure? Read it directly from the main system pressure gauge with all actuators inoperative. Build up system pressure with the emergency pump and then read the pressure on a gauge attached to the air side of the accumulator. Operate a hydraulic unit slowly and note the pressure at which a rapid pressure drop begins as it goes toward zero.
How many of these seals are used with petroleum base hydraulic fluids? Natural rubber, Ethylene-propylene. Neoprene, Buna-N. Natural rubber, Butyl rubber.
Hydraulic system thermal relief valves are set to open at a lower pressure than the system relief valve. higher pressure than the system relief valve. lower pressure than the system pressure regulator.
Chatter in a hydraulic system is caused by excessive system pressure. insufficient system pressure. air in the system.
If hydraulic fluid is released when the air valve core of the accumulator is depressed, it is evidence of excessive accumulator air pressure. a leaking check valve. a ruptured diaphragm or leaking seals.
Although dents in the heel of a bend are not permissible, they are acceptable in the remainder of a hydraulic tube providing they are less than what percent of the tube diameter? 5 10 20.
If the hydraulic system pressure is normal while the engine-driven pump is running, but there is no pressure after the engine has been shut off, it indicates the system relief valve setting is too high. no air pressure in the accumulator. the pressure regulator is set too high.
The purpose of restrictors in hydraulic systems is to control the rate of movement of hydraulically operated mechanisms. allow the flow of fluid in one direction only. lower the operating pressure of selected components.
A common cause of slow actuation of hydraulic components is cold fluid. restricted orifices. internal leakage in the actuating unit.
A loud hammering noise in a hydraulic system having an accumulator usually indicates air in the fluid. too much preload in the accumulator. too low or no preload in the accumulator.
Teflon hose that has developed a permanent set from being exposed to high pressure or temperature should not be straightened or bent further. not be reinstalled once removed. be immediately replaced.
In a typical high-pressure pneumatic system, if the moisture separator does not vent accumulated water when the compressor shuts down, a likely cause is a saturated chemical dryer. malfunctioning pressure transmitter. malfunctioning solenoid dump valve.
Seals used with a mineral base hydraulic fluid are identified by which color code? Green dash. Blue dot or stripe. Yellow dot or stripe.
What is commonly used to connect an emergency source of power, and at the same time disconnect the normal hydraulic source from critical parts of a landing gear or wheel braking system for operation (usually when the normal source system fails)? Selector valve. Shuttle valve. Sequence valve.
Which of the following safeguards ensures proper system operation and mitigates damage to non-metallic components of the hydraulic system? The manual bleed valve should be closed prior to servicing hydraulic fluid to prevent fluid loss as the cap is being removed. Before assembly of any hydraulic components, seals and gaskets should be inspected and replaced only if they show signs of wear or leakage. When adding fluid to a system, use the type specified in the aircraft manufacturer's maintenance manual or on the instruction plate affixed to the reservoir or unit being serviced.
Which section of a turbine engine provides high pressure bleed air to an air cycle machine for pressurization and air-conditioning? Low or high pressure compressor. Compressor inlet. C-D inlet compressor duct.
At which component in an air-cycle cooling system does air undergo a pressure and temperature drop? Expansion turbine. Primary heat exchanger. Refrigeration bypass valve.
In a freon vapor-cycle cooling system, where is cooling air obtained for the condenser? Turbine engine compressor. Ambient air. Pressurized cabin air.
What is ventilating air used for on a combustion heater? Provides combustion air for ground blower. Carries heat to the places where needed. Provides air required to support the flame.
Turbine engine air used for air-conditioning and pressurization is generally called compressed air. ram air. bleed air.
In the combustion heater, combustion air system, what prevents too much air from entering the heaters as air pressure increases? Either a combustion air relief valve or a differential pressure regulator. Only a differential pressure regulator can be used. Only a combustion air relief valve can be used.
How is the cabin pressure of an aircraft maintained in flight? By controlling the rate of the air flowing into the cabin. By inflating the door seals and recirculating the conditioned cabin air. By controlling the rate of the air flowing out of the cabin.
What controls the operation of the cabin pressure regulator? Cabin altitude. Bleed air pressure. Compression air pressure.
The basic air-cycle cooling system consists of a source of compressed air, heat exchangers, and a turbine. heaters, coolers, and compressors. ram air source, compressors, and engine bleeds.
The purpose of the dump valve in a pressurized aircraft is to relieve all positive pressure from the cabin. a negative pressure differential. pressure in excess of the maximum differential.
What component might possibly be damaged if liquid refrigerant is introduced into the low side of a vapor-cycle cooling system when the pressure is too high or the outside air temperature is too low? Compressor. Condenser. Evaporator.
How can it be determined that a vapor-cycle cooling system is charged with the proper amount of freon? Air bubbles in the sight glass disappear. The compressor loads up and RPM decreases. Air bubbles appear in the sight glass.
When charging a vapor-cycle cooling system after evacuation, the low-pressure gauge fails to come out of a vacuum. What is indicated? Blockage in the system. The expansion valve failed to close. The compressor is not engaging.
What component in a vapor-cycle cooling system would most likely be at fault if a system would not take a freon charge? Expansion valve. Condenser. Receiver-dryer.
Frost or ice buildup on a vapor-cycle cooling system evaporator would most likely be caused by the mixing valve sticking closed. moisture in the evaporator. inadequate airflow through the evaporator.
What test is used to determine the serviceability of an oxygen cylinder? Pressure test with manometer. Pressure test with nitrogen. Pressure test with water.
How often should standard weight high-pressure oxygen cylinders be hydrostatically tested? Every 5 years. Every 4 years. Every 3 years.
To be eligible for recharging, a DOT 3HT oxygen cylinder must have been hydrostatically tested every three years and be retired from service after 24 years or 4,380 filling cycles. 15 years or 10,000 filling cycles. 10 years or 5,000 filling cycles.
What type of oxygen system uses the rebreather bag-type mask? Diluter demand. Continuous flow. Demand.
The component that determines the pressure level in the cabin is the cabin air pressure shut-off valve. safety valve. outflow valve.
Hot compressor bleed air operates the conditioned air system on some turbine aircraft, cold air supplied by the hot air mixing valve. vapor cycle air conditioning. air cycle air conditioning.
For use in pressurized aircraft, which is generally the least complicated and requires the least maintenance? Chemical oxygen generator systems. High-pressure oxygen systems. Low-pressure oxygen systems.
What is the main cause of contamination in a gaseous oxygen system? Moisture. Dust. Nitrogen.
Where does the last stage of cooling in an air-cycle air-conditioning system occur? Refrigeration unit compressor. Secondary heat exchanger. Expansion turbine.
The point at which freon flowing through a vapor-cycle cooling system gives up heat and changes from a gas to a liquid is the condenser. evaporator. expansion valve.
The point at which freon flowing through a vapor-cycle cooling system absorbs heat and changes from a liquid to a gas is the condenser. evaporator. expansion valve.
How is the cabin pressure of a pressurized aircraft usually controlled? By a pressure-sensitive switch that causes the pressurization pump to turn on or off as required. By an automatic outflow valve that dumps all the pressure in excess of the amount for which it is set. By a pressure-sensitive valve that controls the output pressure of the pressurization pump.
Which is considered a good practice concerning the inspection of heating and exhaust systems of aircraft utilizing a jacket around the engine exhaust as a heat source? Supplement physical inspections with periodic operational carbon monoxide detection tests. All exhaust system components should be removed periodically, and their condition determined by the magnetic-particle inspection method. All exhaust system components should be removed and replaced at each 100-hour inspection period.
On some cabin pressurization systems, pressurization on the ground is restricted by the main landing gear operated switch. cabin pressure regulator. negative pressure-relief valve.
The cabin pressure control setting has a direct influence upon the outflow valve opening. pneumatic system pressure. inflow valve opening.
The function of the evaporator in a freon cooling system is to liquefy freon in the line between the compressor and the condenser. lower the temperature of the cabin air. transfer heat from the freon gas to ambient air.
What is the purpose of a mixing valve in a compressor bleed air air-conditioning system? Control the supply of hot, cool, and cold air. Distribute conditioned air evenly to all parts of the cabin. Combine ram air with conditioned air.
What component of a pressurization system prevents the cabin altitude from becoming higher than airplane altitude? Cabin rate-of-descent control. Negative pressure relief valve. Positive pressure relief valve.
If the liquid level gauge in a vapor-cycle cooling system indicates a low freon charge, the system should be operated and a pressure check performed. be operated for a period of time to reach a stable condition and then the freon level rechecked. not be operated until freon and oil have been added.
If the cabin rate of climb is too great, the control should be adjusted to cause the outflow valve to close slower. outflow valve to close faster. cabin compressor speed to decrease.
The position of the thermostatic expansion valve in a vapor-cycle cooling system is determined by temperature and pressure of the freon entering the evaporator. air in the outlet of the condenser. freon in the outlet of the evaporator.
The function of the condenser in a freon cooling system is to transfer heat from the freon gas to ambient air. change liquid freon into a gas before it enters the compressor. transfer heat from the cabin air to the liquid freon.
The function of an expansion valve in a freon cooling system is to act as a metering device and to reduce the pressure of the gaseous freon. increase the pressure of the liquid freon. reduce the pressure of the liquid freon.
Which prevents a sudden loss of pressurization in the event that there is a loss of the pressurization source? Firewall shutoff valve. Cabin pressure outflow valve. Delivery air duct check valve.
When servicing an air-conditioning system that has lost all of its freon, it is necessary to check oil and add as necessary, evacuate the system, relieve vacuum, and add freon. check oil and add as necessary, evacuate the system, and add freon. check oil and add as necessary, and add freon.
The primary function of the cabin pressurization system outflow valve is to provide protection against overpressurization. maintain the desired cabin pressure. maintain the same cabin air pressure at all altitudes.
One purpose of a jet pump in a pressurization and air-conditioning system is to produce a high pressure for operation of the out-flow valve. provide for augmentation of airflow in some areas of the aircraft. assist in the circulation of freon.
After cleaning or replacing the filtering element in a combustion heater fuel system, the system should be pressurized and all connections checked for leaks. the fuel filter bypass valve reset to the filter position. a sample of fuel taken downstream from the filter to ensure proper operation of the new filtering element.
The operation of an aircraft combustion heater is usually controlled by a thermostat circuit which alternately turns the fuel on and off, a process known as cycling. meters the amount of fuel continuously entering the heater and therefore regulates the heater's BTU output. regulates the voltage applied to the heater's ignition transformer.
The air-cycle cooling system produces cold air by extracting heat energy across a compressor. passing air through cooling coils that contain a refrigerant. extracting heat energy across an expansion turbine.
(Refer to Figure 13.) Determine what unit is located immediately downstream of the expansion valve in a freon refrigeration system. Condenser. Compressor. Evaporator coils.
What does a steady stream of bubbles indicate when servicing a vapor cycle air conditioning system? The system is over charged. The system is properly charged. The system is under charged.
An aircraft pressurization cycle is normally considered to be one complete series of events or operations that recur regularly. one take off and one landing. when the fuselage reaches its maximum pressure differential one time.
Which best describes cabin differential pressure? Difference between cabin flight altitude pressure and Mean Sea Level pressure. Difference between the ambient and internal air pressure. Difference between cabin pressure controller setting and actual cabin pressure.
Composite oxygen bottles that conform to DOT-E-8162 have a service life of 5 years or 5,000 filling cycles whichever occurs first. 10 years or 5,000 filling cycles whichever occurs first. 15 years or 10,000 filling cycles whichever occurs first.
The cabin pressurization modes of operation are isobaric, differential, and maximum differential. differential, unpressurized, and isobaric. ambient, unpressurized, and isobaric.
(1) Usually bleed air from a gas-turbine engine compressor can be safely used for cabin pressurization. (2) Independent cabin condition air machines (air cycle machine) can be powered by bleed air from an aircraft turbine engine compressor. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
A pressurization controller uses bleed air pressure, outside air temperature, and cabin rate of climb. barometric pressure, cabin altitude, and cabin rate of change. cabin rate of climb, bleed air volume, and cabin pressure.
What unit in a vapor-cycle cooling system serves as a reservoir for the refrigerant? Receiver-dryer. Evaporator. Condenser.
What is the condition of the refrigerant as it enters the condenser of a vapor-cycle cooling system? High-pressure liquid. Low-pressure liquid. High-pressure vapor.
What is the condition of the refrigerant as it enters the evaporator of a vapor-cycle cooling system? High-pressure liquid. Low-pressure liquid. High-pressure vapor.
The evacuation of a vapor-cycle cooling system removes any water that may be present by drawing out the liquid. raising the boiling point of the water and drawing out the vapor. lowering the boiling point of the water and drawing out the vapor.
What is the condition of the refrigerant as it leaves the evaporator of a vapor-cycle cooling system? Low-pressure liquid. Low-pressure vapor. High-pressure vapor.
What is the condition of the refrigerant as it leaves the condenser of a vapor-cycle cooling system? Low-pressure liquid. High-pressure liquid. High-pressure vapor.
In what position should the bottle be placed when adding liquid freon to a vapor-cycle cooling system? Vertical with the outlet at the top. Horizontal with the outlet to the side. Vertical with the outlet at the bottom.
When purging a freon air-conditioning system, it is important to release the charge at a slow rate. What is the reason for the slow-rate discharge? Prevent the large amount of freon from contaminating the surrounding atmosphere. Prevent excessive loss of refrigerant oil. Prevent condensation from forming and contaminating the system.
When a vapor-cycle cooling system is not in operation, what is an indication that the system is leaking freon? Oil seepage. Bubbles in the sight glass. An ozone-like odor in the immediate area.
In an operating vapor-cycle cooling system, if the two lines connected to the expansion valve are essentially the same temperature, what does this indicate? The system is functioning normally. The expansion valve is not metering freon properly. The compressor is pumping too much refrigerant.
The purpose of a subcooler in a vapor-cycle cooling system is to augment the cooling capacity during periods of peak demand. aid in quick cooling a hot aircraft interior. cool the freon to prevent premature vaporization.
(1) A small amount of water in a vapor-cycle cooling system can freeze in the receiver-dryer and stop the entire system operation. (2) Water in a vapor-cycle cooling system will react with refrigerant to form hydrochloric acid which is highly corrosive to the metal in the system. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
When Refrigerant-12 is passed over an open flame, it changes to methane gas. is broken down into its basic chemical elements. changes to phosgene gas.
What type of oil is suitable for use in vapor-cycle cooling system? Low viscosity engine oil with the inability to absorb water. Special high grade refrigeration oil. Highly refined synthetic oil, free from impurities with special water absorbing additives.
When an aircraft's oxygen system has developed a leak, the lines and fittings should be removed and replaced. inspected using a special oxygen system dye penetrant. bubble tested with a special soap solution manufactured specifically for this purpose.
If oxygen bottle pressure is allowed to drop below a specified minimum, it may cause the pressure reducer to fail. the automatic altitude control valve to open. moisture to collect in the bottle.
What controls the amount of oxygen delivered to a mask in a continuous-flow oxygen system? Calibrated orifice. Pressure reducing valve. Pilot's regulator.
In the diluter demand oxygen regulator, when does the demand valve operate? When the diluter control is set at normal. When the user demands 100 percent oxygen. When the user breathes.
The primary difference between aviation breathing oxygen and other types of commercially available compressed oxygen is that the other types are usually somewhat less than 99.5 percent pure oxygen. aviation breathing oxygen has had all the water vapor removed. aviation breathing oxygen has a higher percentage of water vapor to help prevent drying of a person's breathing passages and possible dehydration.
What is used in some oxygen systems to change high cylinder pressure to low system pressure? Pressure reducer valve. Calibrated fixed orifice. Diluter demand regulator.
In a high-pressure oxygen system, if the pressure reducer fails, what prevents high-pressure oxygen from entering the system downstream? Check valve. Pressure relief valve. Manifold control valve.
High-pressure cylinders containing oxygen for aviation use can be identified by their green color and the words 'BREATHING OXYGEN' stenciled in 1-inch white letters. yellow color and the words 'AVIATOR'S BREATHING OXYGEN' stenciled in 1-inch white letters. green color and the words 'AVIATOR'S BREATHING OXYGEN' stenciled in 1-inch white letters.
(Refer to Figure 14.) One hour after an oxygen system was charged for a leakage check, the oxygen pressure gauge read 460 PSI at 63°F; 6 hours later the temperature was 51°F. (A 5 PSI change is the maximum allowable in a 6-hour period.) What pressure gauge readings would be acceptable to remain within the allowable limits? 445 to 450 PSI. 446 to 450 PSI. 455 to 460 PSI.
An aircraft oxygen bottle may be considered airworthy if it has been hydrostatically tested and identified with the test date, DOT number and serial number stamped on the cylinder near the neck. with the DOT number, serial number and manufacturer stamped on the cylinder near the neck. with the DOT number and manufacturer stamped on the cylinder near the neck.
In a gaseous oxygen system, which of the following are vented to blow out plugs in the fuselage skin? Pressure relief valves. Filler shutoff valves. Pressure reducer valves.
The purpose of pressurizing aircraft cabins is to (1) create the proper environment for prevention of hypoxia. (2) permit operation at high altitudes. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
(1) Oxygen used in aircraft systems is at least 99.5 percent pure and is practically water free. (2) Oxygen used in aircraft systems is 99.5 percent pure and is hospital quality. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. neither No. 1 nor No. 2 is true.
Oxygen systems in unpressurized aircraft are generally of the continuous-flow and pressure-demand types. pressure-demand type only. portable-bottle type only.
The purpose of the airflow metering aneroid assembly found in oxygen diluter demand regulators is to regulate airflow in relation to oxygen flow when operating in emergency or diluter demand positions. regulate airflow in relation to cabin altitude when in diluter demand position. automatically put the regulator in emergency position if the demand valve diaphragm ruptures.
If a high-pressure oxygen cylinder is to be installed in an airplane, it must meet the specifications of the aircraft manufacturer or the cylinder manufacturer. Department of Transportation. National Transportation Safety Board or the Standards of Compressed Gas Cylinders.
Before a high-pressure oxygen cylinder is serviced, it must be the correct type and have been hydrostatically tested within the proper time interval. approved by the National Transportation Safety Board. inspected by a certificated airframe mechanic.
A contaminated oxygen system is normally purged with oxygen. compressed air. nitrogen.
How should you determine the amount of oxygen in a portable, high-pressure cylinder? Weigh the cylinder and its contents. Read the pressure gauge mounted on the cylinder. Measure the pressure at the mask.
What may be used as a lubricant on oxygen system tapered pipe thread connections? Silicone dielectric compound. Glycerine. Teflon tape.
On transport category aircraft what might be an indication of an over pressure event of the aircraft oxygen system? The green thermal expansion disk missing. The green thermal expansion disk in the cockpit missing. The green thermal expansion disk on the oxygen regulator missing.
Which of the following are characteristic of a chemical or solid state oxygen system? 1. An adjustable oxygen release rate. 2. A volume storage capacity about three times that of compressed oxygen. 3. The system generators are inert below 400°F even under severe impact. 4. A distribution and regulating system similar to gaseous oxygen systems. 2 & 3. 3 & 4. 1 & 2.
An aircraft magnetic compass is swung to up-date the compass correction card when an annual inspection is accomplished on the aircraft. the compass is serviced. equipment is added that could effect compass deviation.
Which of the following operating mechanisms would be found in a hydraulic pressure gauge? Bourdon tube. Pressure diaphragm. Evacuated bellows.
What is the fixed line mark attached to the compass bowl of a magnetic compass called? Reeder line. Lubber line. Reference line.
(1) Aircraft instruments are color-coded to direct attention to operational ranges and limitations. (2) Aircraft instruments range markings are not specified by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations but are standardized by aircraft manufacturers. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
Which of the following will cause inaccuracies in a magnetic compass that may be compensated for by an aircraft mechanic? Deviation. Current. Variation.
What will be the result if the instrument static pressure line becomes disconnected inside a pressurized cabin during cruising flight? The altimeter and airspeed indicator will both read low. The altimeter and airspeed indicator will both read high. The altimeter will read low and the airspeed indicator will read high.
The maximum deviation (during level flight) permitted in a compensated magnetic direction indicator installed on an aircraft certificated under Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 is 6°. 8°. 10°.
Magnetic compass bowls are filled with a liquid to retard precession of the float. reduce deviation errors. dampen the oscillation of the float.
Instrument static system leakage can be detected by observing the rate of change in indication of the airspeed indicator after suction has been applied to the static system to cause a prescribed equivalent airspeed to be indicated. altimeter after pressure has been applied to the static system to cause a prescribed equivalent altitude to be indicated. altimeter after suction has been applied to the static system to cause a prescribed equivalent altitude to be indicated.
The maximum altitude loss permitted during an unpressurized aircraft instrument static pressure system integrity check is 50 feet in 1 minute. 200 feet in 1 minute. 100 feet in 1 minute.
Which statement regarding an aircraft instrument vacuum system is true? Dry-type vacuum pumps with carbon vanes are very susceptible to damage from solid airborne particles and must take in only filtered air. Vacuum systems are generally more effective at high altitudes than positive pressure systems. If the air inlet to each vacuum instrument is connected to a common atmospheric pressure manifold, the system generally will be equipped with individual instrument filters only.
When an aircraft altimeter is set at 29.92" Hg on the ground, the altimeter will read pressure altitude. density altitude. field elevation.
Which of the following instrument discrepancies could be corrected by an aviation mechanic? 1. Red line missing. 2. Case leaking. 3. Glass cracked. 4. Mounting screws loose. 5. Case paint chipped. 6. Leaking at line B nut. 7. Will not adjust. 8. Fogged. 1, 4, 6. 3, 4, 5, 6. 1, 4, 5, 6.
Which of the following instrument discrepancies would require replacement of the instrument? 1. Red line missing. 2. Case leaking. 3. Glass cracked. 4. Mounting screws loose. 5. Case paint chipped. 6. Leaking at line B nut. 7. Will not zero out. 8. Fogged. 2, 3, 7, 8. 1, 4, 6, 7. 1, 3, 5, 8.
Which instrument condition is acceptable and would not require correction? 1. Red line missing. 2. Case leaking. 3. Glass cracked. 4. Mounting screws loose. 5. Case paint chipped. 6. Leaking at line B nut. 7. Will not zero out. 8. Fogged. 1 5 None.
A barometric altimeter indicates pressure altitude when the barometric scale is set at 29.92" Hg. 14.7" Hg. field elevation.
A Bourdon tube instrument may be used to indicate 1. pressure. 2. temperature. 3. position. 1 and 2. 1 2 and 3.
A turn coordinator instrument indicates the longitudinal attitude of the aircraft during climb and descent. the need for corrections in pitch and bank. both roll and yaw.
Aircraft temperature thermocouple leads may not be altered and are designed for a specific installation. be installed with either lead to either post of the indicator. be repaired using solderless connectors.
A synchro transmitter is connected to a synchro receiver mechanically through linkage. electromagnetically without wires. electrically with wires.
The operation of an angle-of-attack indicating system is based on detection of differential pressure at a point where the airstream flows in a direction not parallel to the true angle of attack of the aircraft. parallel to the angle of attack of the aircraft. parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.
Turbine engine exhaust gas temperatures are measured by using iron/constantan thermocouples. chromel/alumel thermocouples. ratiometer electrical resistance thermometers.
Fuel flow transmitters are designed to transmit data mechanically. electrically. utilizing fluid power.
Which of the following causes of aircraft magnetic compass inaccuracies may be compensated for by mechanics? Deviation. Magnetic compass current. Variation.
Who is authorized to repair an aircraft instrument? 1. A certified mechanic with an airframe rating. 2. A certificated repairman with an airframe rating. 3. A certificated repair station approved for that class instrument. 4. A certificated airframe repair station. 1, 2, 3, and 4. 3 and 4. 3.
What does a reciprocating engine manifold pressure gauge indicate when the engine is not operating? Zero pressure. The differential between the manifold pressure and the atmospheric pressure. The existing atmospheric pressure.
The requirements for testing and inspection of instrument static systems required by Section 91.411 are contained in Type Certificate Data Sheets. AC 43.13-1A. Part 43, appendix E.
Which condition would be most likely to cause excessive vacuum in a vacuum system? Vacuum pump overspeed. Vacuum relief valve improperly adjusted. Vacuum relief valve spring weak.
Data transmitted between components in an EFIS are converted into digital signals. analog signals. carrier wave signals.
The function of a CRT in an EFIS is to allow the pilot to select the appropriate system configuration for the current flight situation. display alphanumeric data and representations of aircraft instruments. receive and process input signals from aircraft and engine sensors and send the data to the appropriate display.
The function of a symbol generator (SG) in an EFIS is to display alphanumeric data and representations of aircraft instruments. allow the pilot to select the appropriate system configuration for the current flight situation. receive and process input signals from aircraft and engine sensors and send the data to the appropriate display.
The function of a display controller in an EFIS is to display alphanumeric data and representations of aircraft instruments. allow the pilot to select the appropriate system configuration for the current flight situation. receive and process input signals from aircraft and engine sensors and send the data to the appropriate display.
A radar altimeter determines altitude by transmitting a signal and receiving back a reflected signal. receiving signals transmitted from ground radar stations. means of transponder interrogation.
A radar altimeter indicates flight level (pressure) altitude. altitude above sea level. altitude above ground level.
Resistance-type temperature indicators using Wheatstone bridge or ratiometer circuits may be used to indicate the temperatures of which of the following? 1. Free air. 2. Exhaust gas temperature. 3. Carburetor air. 4. Coolant (engine). 5. Oil temperature. 6. Cylinder head temperature. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 1, 3, 4, and 5. 1, 2, 3, and 6.
When flags such as NAV, HDG, or GS are displayed on an HSI, the indication is that function is inoperative. that function is operating. to call attention to deviation from the desired setting, or flight path, or heading, etc.
Instrument panel shock mounts absorb high energy impact shocks caused by hard landings. low frequency, high-amplitude shocks. high G shock loads imposed by turbulent air.
Which procedure should you use if you find a vacuum-operated instrument glass loose? Mark the case and glass with a slippage mark. Replace the glass. Install another instrument.
Which instruments are connected to an aircraft's pitot-static system? 1. Vertical speed indicator. 2. Cabin altimeter. 3. Altimeter. 4. Cabin rate-of-change indicator. 5. Airspeed indicator. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 1, 2, and 4. 1, 3, and 5.
Which of the following instruments will normally have range markings? Altimeter. Cylinder head temperature gauge, airspeed indicator. Altimeter, airspeed indicator.
How would an airspeed indicator be marked to show the best rate-of-climb speed (one engine inoperative)? A red radial line. A blue radial line. A green arc.
The green arc on an aircraft temperature gauge indicates the instrument is not calibrated. the desirable temperature range. a low, unsafe temperature range.
What must be done to an instrument panel that is supported by shock mounts? Bonding straps must be installed across the instrument mounts as a current path. The instrument mounts must be grounded to the aircraft structure as a current path. The instrument mounts must be tightened to the specified torque required by the maintenance manual.
What marking color is used to indicate if a cover glass has slipped? Red. White. Yellow.
Aircraft instrument value should be marked and graduated in accordance with the instrument manufacturer's specifications. both the aircraft and engine manufacturers' specifications. the specific aircraft maintenance or flight manual.
Aircraft instrument panels are generally shock-mounted to absorb all vibration. low-frequency, high-amplitude shocks. high-frequency, high-amplitude shocks.
The method of mounting aircraft instruments in their respective panels depends on the instrument manufacturer. design of the instrument case. design of the instrument panel.
How is a flangeless instrument case mounted in an instrument panel? By four machine screws which extend through the instrument panel. By an expanding-type clamp secured to the back of the panel and tightened by a screw from the front of the instrument panel. By a metal shelf separate from and located behind the instrument panel.
Cases for electrically operated instruments are made of Aluminum or composite cases. Iron or steel cases. Bakelite or plastic cases.
When installing an instrument in an aircraft, who is responsible for making sure it is properly marked? The aircraft owner or pilot. The mechanic installing the instrument. The manufacturer of the instrument.
Where may a person look for the information necessary to determine the required markings on an engine instrument? 1. Engine manufacturer's specifications. 2. Aircraft flight manual. 3. Instrument manufacturer's specifications. 4. Aircraft maintenance manual. 2 or 4. 1 or 4. 2 or 3.
A certificated mechanic with airframe and powerplant ratings may perform minor repairs to aircraft instruments. perform minor repairs and minor alterations to aircraft instruments. not perform repairs to aircraft instruments.
The red radial lines on the face of an engine oil pressure gauge indicates minimum engine safe RPM operating range. minimum precautionary safe operating range. minimum and/ or maximum safe operating limits.
A certificated mechanic may perform minor repairs to instruments. 100-hour inspections of instruments. instrument overhaul.
An aircraft instrument panel is electrically bonded to the aircraft structure to act as a restraint strap. provide current return paths. aid in the panel installation.
How many of the following are controlled by gyroscopes? 1. Attitude indicator. 2. Heading indicator. 3. Turn needle of the turn-and-slip indicator. Three. Two. One.
The lubber line on a directional gyro is used to represent the nose of the aircraft. align the instrument glass in the case. represent the wings of the aircraft.
Which instruments are connected to an aircraft's static pressure system only? 1. Vertical speed indicator. 2. Cabin altimeter. 3. Altimeter. 4. Cabin rate-of-change indicator. 5. Airspeed indicator. 1 and 3. 2, 4, and 5. 2 and 4.
When an unpressurized aircraft's static pressure system is leak checked to comply with the requirements of Section 91.411, what aircraft instrument may be used in lieu of a pitot-static system tester? 1. Vertical speed indicator. 2. Cabin altimeter. 3. Altimeter. 4. Cabin rate-of-change indicator. 5. Airspeed indicator. 1 or 5. 2 or 4. 3.
If a static pressure system check reveals excessive leakage, the leak(s) may be located by pressurizing the system and adding leak detection dye. isolating portions of the line and testing each portion systematically starting at the instrument connections. removing and visually inspecting the line segments.
When performing the static system leakage check required by Section 91.411, the technician utilizes static pressure. positive pressure. negative pressure.
At sea level, when the average atmospheric pressure is 14.7 PSI, the barometric pressure is 29.92 Hg. 29.92 Mb. 1013.25 Hg.
A certificated mechanic with at least an airframe rating may perform minor internal repairs to aircraft instruments. major repairs to aircraft instruments. inspections and function checks on aircraft instruments.
What is the primary purpose of an autopilot? To relieve the pilot of control of the aircraft during long periods of flight. To allow for longer flights and more precise courses flown by the pilot. To stabilize flight control in turbulent conditions.
Which of the following provides manual maneuverability of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged? Servo-amplifier. Directional gyro indicator. Flight controller.
In an autopilot, which signal nullifies the input signal to the ailerons? Displacement signal. Course signal. Followup signal.
In which control element of an autopilot system is an attitude indicator? Command. Sensing. Input.
What is the operating principle of the sensing device used in an autopilot system? The reaction of the force 90° away from the applied force in the direction of gyro rotation. The relative motion between a gyro and its supporting system. The rate of change of motion between the gyro gimbal rings and the aircraft.
What will occur if an aircraft attitude is changed by its autopilot system in order to correct for an error and the involved control surfaces are returned to streamline by the time the aircraft has reached its correct position? Overshoot and oscillation. Undershoot and oscillation. Normal operation.
What component of an autopilot system applies torque to the control surfaces of an aircraft? Servo. Controller. Gyro.
What is the main purpose of a servo in an autopilot system? Correct for displacement of the aircraft about its axis. Change mechanical energy to electrical energy. Move the control surface as commanded.
Which channel of an autopilot detects changes in pitch attitude of an aircraft? Elevator. Aileron. Rudder.
The elevator channel of an autopilot controls the aircraft about which axis of rotation? Roll. Longitudinal. Lateral.
What component is the sensing device in an electromechanical autopilot system? Servo. Gyro. Controller.
A fully integrated autopilot controls the aircraft around how many axes? Two. Three. Four.
Dutch roll, a combination yawing and rolling oscillation that affects many sweptwing aircraft, is counteracted with a flight director system. an aileron damper system. a yaw damper system.
When operationally checking an autopilot system on the ground, after the aircraft's main power has been switched on, the autopilot should be engaged only after the gyros come up to speed and the amplifier warms up. whenever the operator desires. for only a few minutes at a time.
Installed radio equipment is protected from damage due to jolts and vibration by shock mounts. spring and/or viscous damper mounted racks. rubber or foam cushioning material between circuit chassis and case.
(1) Use solder to attach bonding jumpers on radio equipment. (2) Radio equipment is bonded to the aircraft in order to provide a low-impedance ground and to minimize radio interference from static electrical charges. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. only No. 2 is true.
When must the radio station license be displayed in an aircraft equipped with a two-way radio? When the aircraft is operated outside the U.S. When the aircraft is returned to service. When the aircraft is certified for IFR flight.
When would a U.S. resident NOT be required to hold a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Restricted Radio Telephone Operator Permit to operate two-way aircraft VHF radio equipment? When flying to or communicating with destinations outside the United States. When flying or communicating within the United States. When the radio equipment is operated in aircraft certified for VFR flight only.
Part of the ADF system used on aircraft includes RMI indicator antenna. marker beacon antenna. sense and loop antennas.
When installing coaxial cable, it should be secured firmly along its entire length at 1-foot intervals. wherever the cable sags. at 2-foot intervals.
When must the emergency locator transmitter (ELT) battery be replaced (other than reading the replacement date)? When the transmitter has been in use for more than one cumulative hour. Must be replaced annually or if the five G switch has been activated. When the transmitter has been tested more than ten times.
An emergency locator transmitter (ELT) battery must be capable of furnishing power for signal transmission for at least 36 hours. 48 hours. 72 hours.
The preferred location of an ELT is as far forward as possible but aft of the firewall. at the lowest point possible in the fuselage. as far aft as possible but forward of the empennage.
An emergency locator transmitter (ELT) is normally activated by an inertial switch or equivalent mechanism if subjected to a force of a prescribed intensity and duration. It must activate when the force is applied parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. parallel to the vertical axis of the aircraft. in any direction relative to the aircraft axes.
How may the battery replacement date be verified for an emergency locator transmitter (ELT)? By removing the batteries and testing them under a measured load to determine if 50 percent of the useful life remains. By observing the battery replacement date marked on the outside of the transmitter. By activating the transmitter and measuring the signal strength.
How may the operation of an installed emergency locator transmitter (ELT) be verified during aircraft inspection? By moving the deactivating switch from the DISARM position to the ARM position while monitoring the civil emergency frequency with a communications receiver at five minutes after the hour. By activating the 5 g switch and turning the unit on at five minutes after the hour. By tuning a communications receiver to the civil emergency frequency and activating the ELT momentarily within five minutes after the hour.
Static dischargers help eliminate radio interference by dissipating static electricity into the atmosphere at low current levels. high voltage level. high current levels.
Aircraft antenna must be grounded to the airframe. wing spar. bus bar.
VHF radio signals are commonly used in ATC communications. VOR navigation. both VOR navigation and ATC communications.
On modern large aircraft, what electronic device typically monitors flight parameters and performs autopilot functions? Flight management computer. Transponder. Control/display unit.
In the landing configuration GPWS typically monitors the radio (radar) altimeter; air data computer; instrument landing system; and aileron, rudder, and elevator positions. landing gear and flap positions. spoiler, slat, and stabilizer positions.
In general, the purpose of an aircraft transponder is to continually transmit heading, speed, and rate of climb/decent etc. information to ATC. monitor aircraft speed, heading, altitude, and attitude whenever the autopilot system is engaged. receive an interrogation signal from a ground station and automatically send a reply back.
When an antenna is installed, it should be fastened to the primary structure at the approximate intersection of the three aircraft axes. with a reinforcing doubler on each side of the aircraft skin. so that loads imposed are transmitted to the aircraft structure.
After an automatic direction finding antenna has been installed, the antenna must be grounded. loop must be calibrated. transceiver must be compensated.
Doublers are used when antennas are installed to eliminate antenna vibration. prevent oil canning of the skin. reinstate the structural strength of the aircraft skin.
One antenna can be used for the radio range and standard broadcast bands in light aircraft because the two ranges are close together. antenna is omnidirectional. antenna length may be electronically adjusted.
What characteristics of the installation of a rigid antenna on a vertical stabilizer should be evaluated? Polarization and impedance. Impedance and interference. Flutter and vibration.
A gasket or sealant is used between the antenna mast and fuselage skin to prevent the entry of moisture. for aircraft pressurization only. to prevent abrasion between the antenna mast and fuselage skin.
The preferred location of a VOR antenna on light aircraft is on the bottom of the fuselage and as far forward as possible. top of the cabin with the apex of the V pointing forward. top of the vertical stabilizer.
The purpose of a localizer is to set the airplane on the proper approach angle to the runway. indicate the distance the airplane is from the end of the runway. align the airplane with the center of the runway.
(Refer to Figure 15.) What is the approximate drag load on an antenna with a frontal area of .125 square feet installed on an aircraft with a speed of 225 MPH? 2.069 pounds. 2.073 pounds. 2.080 pounds.
(Refer to Figure 15.) What is the approximate drag load on an antenna with a frontal area of .137 square feet installed on an aircraft with a speed of 275 MPH? 3.387 pounds. 3.741 pounds. 3.592 pounds.
A DME antenna should be installed on the aircraft in a position that will not be blanked out by the wing when the aircraft is banked. not be blanked out by the vertical stabilizer. facilitate cleaning, inspection, and maintenance.
When bending coaxial cable, the bend radius should be at least 10 times the diameter of the cable. 15 times the diameter of the cable. 20 times the diameter of the cable.
When installing a DME antenna, it should be aligned with the VOR antenna. chord line. centerline on the airplane.
(Refer to Figure 16.) Which of the antennas shown is a typical DME antenna? 1 2 4.
(Refer to Figure 16.) Which of the antennas shown is a typical glideslope antenna? 2 3 4.
The addition of avionics and associated antenna systems forward of the CG limit will affect empty weight and useful load. CG limits and useful load. useful load and maximum gross weight.
How much clearance from the seat bottom is required when installing radio equipment under a seat? 3 inches with the seat unoccupied. No set minimum as long as the equipment receives adequate cooling and damage protection. 1 inch with the seat occupied and subjected to maximum downward seat spring deflection.
The purpose of a glideslope system is to provide for automatic altitude reporting to air traffic control. indicate the distance the airplane is from the end of the runway. assist the pilot in making a correct angle of descent to the runway.
(Refer to Figure 22.) What kind of antenna is this? This is a glide slope antenna. This is a DME or a radar beacon transponder. This is a loop and sense antenna.
(Refer to Figure 23.) What is this antenna used for? This is an altitude encoder used with transponders. This is a TCAS receiver used with monitoring and alerting systems. This is an aircraft radar beacon transponder used for location identification.
(Refer to Figure 24.) What kind of antenna is this? A dipole antenna. A Marconi antenna. A loop antenna.
(Refer to Figure 25.) What kind of antenna is this? A dipole antenna. A canted antenna. A Marconi antenna.
(Refer to Figure 26.) Where is the strongest signal for this antenna? Below the antenna. Above the antenna. Ahead of the antenna.
(Refer to Figure 27.) What kind of antenna is this? A glide slope antenna. A VOR and localizer antenna. A radar beacon transponder antenna.
(Refer to Figure 28.) What kind of antenna is this? An ELT antenna. A DME antenna. A VHF communications antenna.
(Refer to Figure 29.) What kind of antenna is this? A glide slope antenna. A VOR and localizer antenna. A radar beacon transponder antenna.
(Refer to Figure 30.) What kind of antenna is this? A lightning detector system antenna. A VOR and localizer antenna. A satellite weather antenna.
(Refer to Figure 31.) What kind of antenna is this? A lightning detector system antenna. A marker beacon receiver antenna. A satellite weather antenna.
(Refer to Figure 32.) What kind of antenna is this? A lightning detector system antenna. A marker beacon receiver antenna. A radar beacon transponder antenna.
(Refer to Figure 33.) What kind of antenna is this? A VOR/glide slope antenna. A marker beacon receiver antenna. A radar beacon transponder antenna.
(Refer to Figure 34.) What kind of antenna is this? A VOR/glide slope antenna. A marker beacon receiver antenna. A radar beacon transponder antenna.
Fuel jettisoning is usually accomplished through a common manifold and outlet in each wing. by gravity flow into the outboard wing tanks and overboard through a common outlet in each wing. through individual outlets for each tank.
The primary purpose of an aircraft's fuel jettison system is to quickly achieve a lower landing weight. balanced fuel load. reduced fire hazard.
(1) The fuel jettison valve must be designed to allow flight personnel to close the valve during any part of the jettisoning operation. (2) During the fuel jettisoning operation, the fuel must discharge clear of any part of the airplane. Regarding the above statements, both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. only No. 2 is true. neither No. 1 nor No. 2 is true.
Which of the following is employed to maintain lateral stability when jettisoning fuel? Two separate independent systems. Crossfeed system. Two interconnected systems.
A fuel jettison system is required under certain conditions if the maximum takeoff weight exceeds the maximum landing weight. What regulations cover the requirements of fuel jettisoning? Federal Aviation Regulation Part 43 and 91. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23, 25 and CAM 4b. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 21, 43 and CAM 8.
Fuel is moved overboard in most fuel jettison systems by boost pumps. gravity. gravity and engine-driven fuel pumps.
Fuel jettisoning past the limits prescribed by Federal Aviation Regulations is usually prevented by closely monitoring the fuel quantity and turning off the fuel dump switch(es). dump limit valves or a low-level circuit. standpipes in the fuel tanks.
Which procedure must be followed when defueling aircraft with sweptback wings? Defuel all the tanks at one time. Defuel the inboard wing tanks first. Defuel the outboard wing tanks first.
(Refer to Figure 17.) What is the purpose of the pump crossfeed valve? Balance the fuel in the tanks. Allow operation of engines from one tank. Allow operation of the left engine when the right fuel-boost pump is inoperative.
Normal fuel crossfeed system operation in multiengine aircraft calls for jettisoning of fuel overboard to correct lateral instability. reduces contamination and/or fire hazards during fueling or defueling operations. provides a means to maintain a balanced fuel load condition.
How many vents, arranged so that they are not likely to become plugged at the same time, must be used in multiengine fuel systems? Two. Four. Six.
What is the primary purpose of the crossfeed system? It allows any tank to supply fuel to any engine. It bypasses the engine shutoff valve if it fails. It divides the fuel and sends it to the injectors.
Fuel system components must be bonded and grounded in order to drain off static charges. prevent stray currents. retard galvanic corrosion.
How many engine driven fuel pumps per engine are required for engines requiring fuel pumps? Two engines can share one fuel pump. One fuel pump for each engine. Two fuel pumps for each engine.
A typical large transport aircraft fuel manifold system allows how many of the following? 1. All tanks can be serviced through a single connection. 2. Any engine can be fed from any tank. 3. All engines can be fed from all tanks simultaneously. 4. A damaged tank can be isolated from the rest of the fuel system. 1 and 2. 1, 2, and 3. 1, 2, 3, and 4.
A fuel system must be designed to prevent fuel-vapor ignition caused by over-heating. back-fire. lightning.
What is the minimum distance allowed between a fuel tank and the fire wall separating the engine? One-half inch. One inch. Two inches.
Fuel baffles are installed in tanks to prevent ______________________ caused by changes in the attitude of the aircraft. vapors surging starvation.
Many fuel tanks incorporate _________________ valves to prevent fuel from flowing away from the boost pump or tank outlet when the aircraft is in a high 'G' maneuver. flapper check dump.
Fuel heaters are used with fuel systems for turbine engines to prevent ____________ in the fuel from clogging system filters. moisture ice crystals contamination.
A transducer in a fuel pressure system serves what function? Transmits an electrical signal to the transmitter for fluid pressure. Transmits electrical signal proportional to the fluid pressure. Converts fluid pressure directly through a transmitter to the indicator.
The use of turbine fuels in aircraft has resulted in some problems not normally associated with aviation gasolines. One of these problems is increasing viscosity of fuel as fuel temperature lowers at altitude. higher vapor pressure. microbial contaminants.
What is used in many aircraft to prevent bubbles in the fuel after it leaves the tank when atmospheric pressure is lower than fuel vapor pressure? Air-fuel separators. Anti-foaming additives. Boost pumps.
Which of the following precautions is most important during refueling operations? All outside electrical sources must be disconnected from the aircraft. Fuel to be used must be appropriately identified. All electrical switches must be in OFF position.
Before fueling an aircraft by using the pressure fueling method, what important precaution should be observed? The truck pump pressure must be correct for that refueling system. The truck pump pressure must be adjusted for minimum filter pressure. The aircraft's electrical system must be on to indicate quantity gauge readings.
What flight safety-related advantage does a pressure fueling system provide? Keeps the aircraft within weight and balance limitations. Reduces the chances for fuel contamination. Reduces the time required for fueling.
Aircraft pressure fueling systems instructional procedures are normally placarded on the fuel control panel access door. lower wing surface adjacent to the access door. aircraft ground connection point.
Pressure fueling of aircraft is usually accomplished through pressure connections on individual fuel tanks. at least one single point connection. individual fuel tank overwing and/or fuselage access points.
Which of the following may be used for the repair of fuel leaks on most integral fuel tanks? Welding and resealing. Brazing and resealing. Riveting and resealing.
How is the outlet fuel pressure regulated on a submerged, single-speed, centrifugal-type fuel pump? By the engine-driven pump's design and internal clearance. By the first check valve downstream from the pump. By the pump's design and internal clearances.
What is one purpose of a fuel tank vent? To maintain atmospheric pressure. To decrease fuel vapor pressure. To decrease tank internal air pressure.
When inspecting a removable rigid fuel tank for leaks, what procedure should be followed? pressurize the tank with air and brush with soapy water. fill the tank with water and pressurize with air and brush with soapy water. pressurize the tank with air and submerge in water to locate leaks.
If it is necessary to enter an aircraft's fuel tank, which procedure should be avoided? Continue purging the tank during the entire work period. Station an assistant outside the fuel tank access to perform rescue operations if required. Conduct the defueling and tank purging operation in an air-conditioned building.
What is the recommended practice for cleaning a fuel tank before welding? Purge the tank with air. Flush the inside of the tank with clean water. Steam clean the tank interior.
An aircraft's integral fuel tank is usually located in the bottom of the fuselage. a part of the aircraft structure. a self-sealing tank.
Which gas is used for purging an aircraft fuel tank? Helium or argon. Carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide.
Why is the main fuel strainer located at the lowest point in the fuel system? It traps any small amount of water that may be present in the fuel system. It is near the fuel tank heater to help prevent vapor lock in the system. It filters and traps all micro-organisms that may be present in the fuel system.
The purpose of a diaphragm in a vane-type fuel pump is to equalize fuel pressure at all speeds. vary fuel pressure according to throttle setting. compensate fuel pressures to altitude changes.
When moving the mixture control on a normally operating engine into the idle cutoff position, engine RPM should slightly increase before the engine starts to die. slightly decrease and then drop rapidly. remain the same until the cutoff is effected, then drop rapidly.
Entrained water in aviation turbine fuel is a hazard because of its susceptibility to freezing as it passes through the filters. What are common methods of preventing this hazard? Micromesh fuel strainers and fuel heater. High-velocity fuel pumps and fuel heater. Anti-icing fuel additives and fuel heater.
As a general rule, which statement is true regarding fuel leaks? Stains, seeps, and heavy seeps are not flight hazards. All fuel leaks regardless of location or severity are considered a hazard to flight. Stains, seeps, and heavy seeps, (in addition to running leaks) are considered flight hazards when located in unvented areas of the aircraft.
The presence of fuel stains around a fuel nozzle would indicate too much fuel pressure. excessive airflow across the venturi. clogged fuel nozzle.
What should be used to inert an integral fuel tank before attempting repairs? CO(2). Water. Steam.
What should be used to remove flux from an aluminum tank after welded repairs? Soft brush and warm water. 5 percent solution of nitric or sulfuric acid. Mild solution of soap and warm water.
What method would be used to check for internal leakage of a fuel valve without removing the valve from the aircraft? Place the valve in the OFF position, drain the strainer bowl, and with boost pump on, watch to see if fuel flows to the strainer bowl. Remove fuel cap(s), turn boost pump(s) on, and watch for bubbling in the tanks. Apply regulated air pressure on the downstream side of the fuel pump and listen for air passing through the valve.
Why are jet fuels more susceptible to water contamination than aviation gasoline? Jet fuel has a higher viscosity than gasoline. Jet fuel is lighter than gasoline; therefore, water is more easily suspended. Condensation is greater because of the higher volatility of jet fuels.
When installing a rigid fuel line, 1/2 inch in diameter, at what intervals should the line be supported? 24 inches. 12 inches. 16 inches.
The probe of a capacitance-type fuel level gauge is essentially a float-actuated variable capacitor. capacitor with fuel and air acting as one plate. capacitor with fuel and air acting as a dielectric.
Which statement concerning an electronic capacitance-type fuel quantity indicating system is true? It has no moving parts in the tank. It has two tubes separated by an electronic field in the tank. It utilizes a variable capacitor to indicate the fuel tank capacity.
What type of remote-reading fuel quantity indicating system has several probes installed in each fuel tank? Electromechanical. Electronic. Direct reading.
Which aircraft fuel quantity indicating system incorporates a signal amplifier? Electronic. Sight glass. Electrical.
A drip gauge may be used to measure the amount of fuel in the tank. system leakage with the system shut down. fuel pump diaphragm leakage.
The electronic-type fuel quantity indicating system consists of a bridge circuit, an amplifier, an indicator, and a tank unit. a tank, an amplifier, and an indicator. a tank unit, a tank, and an amplifier.
A probe or a series of probes is used in what kind of fuel quantity indicating system? Selsyn. Capacitor. Synchro.
Why is the capacitance fluid quantity indicating system more accurate in measuring fuel level than a mechanical type? Only one probe and one indicator are necessary for multiple tank configurations. It measures in gallons and converts to pounds. It measures by weight instead of volume.
One advantage of electrical and electronic fuel quantity indicating systems is that the indicators are calibrated in gallons; therefore, no conversion is necessary. only one transmitter and one indicator are needed regardless of the number of tanks. several fuel tank levels can be read on one indicator.
A fuel totalizer is a component which indicates the total amount of fuel being consumed by all engines. amount of fuel in any given tank. amount of fuel in all tanks.
A digital fuel totalizer automatically indicates the amount of fuel used, fuel remaining, current rate of consumption, and fuel weight, aboard at takeoff. remaining at the 45-minute IFR fuel reserve. remaining, flight time at the current power setting.
What is the dielectric (nonconducting material) in a capacitance-type fuel quantity indicating system? Outer shell of the capacitor. Fuel in the tank. Fuel and air in the tank.
A capacitance-type fuel quantity indicating system measures fuel in pounds. pounds per hour. gallons.
What are the four general types of fuel quantity gauges? 1. Sight glass. 2. Mechanical. 3. Electrical. 4. Electronic. 5. Bourdon tube. 6. Vane-type transmitter. 7. Litmus indicator. 8. Direct-reading static pressure type. 1, 2, 3, 4. 1, 3, 6, 8. 2, 3, 5, 7.
How does temperature affect fuel weight? Cold fuel is heavier per gallon. Warm fuel is heavier per gallon. Temperature has no effect.
One advantage of electrical and electronic fuel quantity indicating systems is that the indicator can be located any distance from the tank(s). has no movable devices. always measures volume instead of mass.
When fuel quantity is measured in pounds instead of gallons, the measurement will be more accurate because fuel volume varies with temperature change. increases when temperature decreases. varies with changes in atmospheric pressure.
An electrical type fuel quantity indicating system consists of an indicator in the cockpit and a float in the tank that moves a connecting arm to the wiper on a variable resistor in the tank. attached to a rod that moves up or down in a calibrated cylinder. in the tank that operates with alternating current and uses constant resistance in a circuit to drive a ratiometer-type indicator.
What is the purpose of a float-operated transmitter installed in a fuel tank? It sends an electric signal to the fuel quantity indicator. It senses the total amount of fuel density. It senses the dielectric qualities of fuel and air in the tank.
In an electronic-type fuel quantity indicating system, the tank sensing unit is a capacitor. variable resistor. variable inductor.
What must each fuel quantity indicator be calibrated to read during level flight when the quantity of fuel remaining is equal to the unusable fuel supply? The total unusable fuel quantity. Both the total unusable fuel quantity and the unusable fuel quantity in each tank. Zero.
What unit would be adjusted to change the fuel pressure warning limits? Fuel flowmeter bypass valve. Pressure-sensitive mechanism. Fuel pressure relief valve.
Select one means of controlling the fuel temperature on turbine-powered aircraft. Engine bleed air to the fuel filter. Engine bleed air to the fuel tank. Engine bleed air to a heat exchanger.
What is the purpose of flapper-type check valves in integral fuel tanks? To allow defueling of the tanks by suction. To prevent fuel from flowing away from the boost pumps. To allow the engine-driven pumps to draw fuel directly from the tank if the boost pump fails.
What unit is generally used to actuate the fuel pressure warning system? Fuel flowmeter. Pressure-sensitive mechanism. Fuel pressure gauge.
What method is used on turbine-powered aircraft to determine when the condition of the fuel is approaching the danger of forming ice crystals? Fuel pressure warning. Fuel pressure gauge. Fuel temperature indicator.
Which of the following would give the first positive indication that a change-over from one fuel tank to another is needed? Fuel pressure warning. Fuel pressure gauge. Fuel quantity indicator.
A fuel pressure warning switch contacts close and warning light is turned on when a measured quantity of fuel has passed through it. the fuel flow stops. the fuel pressure drops below specified limits.
A transmitter in a fuel pressure warning system serves what function? Transmits an electrical signal to fluid pressure. Converts fluid pressure to an electrical signal. Transmits fluid pressure directly to the indicator.
Where is fuel pressure taken for the pressure warning signal on most aircraft engines? Outlet side of the boost pump. Fuel pressure line of the carburetor. Between the fuel pump and the strainer.
Which of the following is necessary to effectively troubleshoot a fuel pressure warning system? The manufacturer's maintenance manuals. AC 43.13-1B, Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices -- Aircraft Inspection and Repair. A set of Federal Aviation Regulations.
Which of the following would be most useful to locate and troubleshoot an internal fuel leak in an aircraft fuel system? Structural repair manual. Orthographic projection troubleshooting tree. Maintenance manual diagrams and descriptions.
In some aircraft with several fuel tanks, the possible danger of allowing the fuel supply in one tank to become exhausted before the selector valve is switched to another tank is prevented by the installation of a fuel pressure warning signal system. a fuel pressure relief valve. an engine fuel pump bypass valve.
(1) The function of a fuel heater is to protect the engine fuel system from ice formation. (2) An aircraft fuel heater cannot be used to thaw ice in the fuel screen. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
(1) Gas-turbine-engine fuel systems are very susceptible to the formation of ice in the fuel filters. (2) A fuel heater operates as a heat exchanger to warm the fuel. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
(1) A fuel heater can use engine bleed air as a source of heat. (2) A fuel heater can use engine lubricating oil as a source of heat. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. neither No. 1 nor No. 2 is true.
(1) A fuel pressure gauge is a differential pressure indicator. (2) A fuel pressure gauge indicates the pressure of the fuel entering the carburetor. Regarding the above statements, only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. neither No. 1 nor No. 2 is true.
(1) A fuel pressure relief valve is required on an aircraft positive-displacement fuel pump. (2) A fuel pressure relief valve is required on an aircraft centrifugal fuel boost pump. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
The primary purpose of a fuel tank sump is to provide a way to shut off fuel flow or to route the fuel to a desired location. place for contaminants and water to settle, with a drain valve to remove the impurities. way to manually operate valves on a fuel tank to isolate or direct fuel to a pump.
Why are integral fuel tanks used in many large aircraft? To reduce fire hazards. To facilitate servicing. To reduce weight.
When an aircraft is fueled from a truck or fuel farm that has not been contaminated, daily draining is not required because fuel trucks and fuel farms may make use of laser contaminant identification technology. of strainers and sumps is combined with periodic filter changes and inspection to ensure fuel is contaminant free. is only required if the fuel truck or farm has not been in continuous service.
When defueling an aircraft, which of the following must be accomplished? Defuel inside the hangar when fire suppression is available. Defuel outside the hangar when possible. Always defuel outside the hangar.
Integral fuel tanks on transport aircraft are easily removed for service or inspection. constructed of plastic or fiberglass. supported by the aircraft structure.
What precautions must be observed if a gravity-feed fuel system is permitted to supply fuel to an engine from more than one tank at a time? The tank airspaces must be interconnected. The fuel outlet ports of each tank must have the same cross-sectional area. Each tank must have a valve in its outlet that automatically shuts off the line when the tank is empty.
The purpose of the baffle plate in a fuel tank is to provide an expansion space for the fuel. resist fuel surging within the fuel tank. provide internal structural integrity.
What markings must be placed on or near each appropriate fuel filler cover on standard category aircraft? The word 'Avgas' and the minimum fuel grade, and the total fuel tank capacity. The word 'Avgas' and the minimum fuel grade or designation for the engines, and the usable fuel tank capacity. The word 'Avgas' and the minimum fuel grade.
What is one disadvantage of using aromatic aviation fuels? A fuel intercooler is required. Deteriorates rubber parts. Results in low fuel volatility.
Fuel-boost pumps are operated to provide a positive flow of fuel to the engine. primarily for fuel transfer. automatically from fuel pressure.
Flapper valves are used in fuel tanks to reduce pressure. prevent a negative pressure. act as check valves.
Why are centrifugal-type boost pumps used in fuel systems of aircraft operating at high altitude? Because they are positive displacement pumps. To supply fuel under pressure to engine-driven pumps. To permit cooling air to circulate around the motor.
Why is it necessary to vent all aircraft fuel tanks? To ensure a positive head pressure for a submerged boost pump. To exhaust fuel vapors. To limit pressure differential between the tank and atmosphere.
According to Part 23, what minimum required markings must be placed at or near each appropriate fuel filler cover for reciprocating engine-powered airplanes? The word 'Avgas' and the minimum fuel grade. The word 'Fuel' and usable fuel capacity. The word 'Avgas' and the total fuel capacity.
The location of leaks and defects within the internal portions of the fuel system can usually be determined by visual inspection for evidence of wet spots and stains, and feeling for unusually warm components. performing a fuel flow check. observing the pressure gauge and operating the selector valves.
What type of fuel-booster pump requires a pressure relief valve? Concentric. Sliding vane. Centrifugal.
To prevent vapor lock in fuel lines at high altitude, some aircraft are equipped with vapor separators. direct-injection-type carburetors. booster pumps.
Some turbine powered aircraft have a fuel temperature indicator located in the cockpit to monitor the fuel flow in the event that ice crystals form in the fuel system. monitor the fuel temperature during high altitude flight. ascertain the amount of fuel onboard the aircraft when ice starts to form in the fuel tanks.
When inspecting a fuel system, you should check all valves located downstream of boost pumps with the pumps at idle. dormant. operating.
The type of fuel-boost pump that separates air and vapor from the fuel before it enters the line to the carburetor is the gear-type pump. centrifugal-type pump. sliding vane-type pump.
(1) On a large aircraft pressure refueling system, a pressure refueling receptacle and control panel will permit one person to fuel or defuel any or all fuel tanks of an aircraft. (2) Because of the fuel tank area, there are more advantages to a pressure fueling system in light aircraft. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
When routing a fuel line between two rigidly mounted fittings the line should have at least one bend between such fittings. be a straight length of tubing and clamped to the aircraft structure. have a flexible line added between two metal lines to allow for ease of installation.
(1) If aviation gasoline vaporizes too readily, fuel lines may become filled with vapor and cause increased fuel flow. (2) A measure of a gasoline's tendency to vapor lock is obtained from the Reid vapor pressure test. Regarding the above statements, only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. neither No. 1 nor No. 2 is true.
Microbial growth is produced by various forms of microorganisms that live and multiply in the water interfaces of jet fuels. Which of the following could result if microbial growth exists in a jet fuel tank and is not corrected? 1. Interference with fuel flow. 2. Interference with fuel quantity indicators. 3. Engine seizure. 4. Electrolytic corrosive action in a metal tank. 5. Lower grade rating of the fuel. 6. Electrolytic corrosive action in a rubber tank. 1, 2, 4. 2, 3, 5. 1, 5, 6.
The vapor pressure of aviation gasoline is lower than the vapor pressure of automotive gasoline. higher than the vapor pressure of automotive gasoline. approximately 20 PSI at 100°F.
What can be done to eliminate or minimize the microbial growth problem in an aircraft jet fuel tank? Use anti-icing and antibacterial additives. Add CO(2) as a purgative. Keep the fuel tank topped off.
What is the maximum vapor pressure allowable for an aircraft fuel? 7 PSI. 5 PSI. 3 PSI.
If a bladder-type fuel tank is to be left empty for an extended period of time, the inside of the tank should be coated with a film of engine oil. linseed oil. ethylene glycol.
How may the antiknock characteristics of a fuel be improved? By adding a knock inhibitor. By adding a knock enhancer. By adding a fungicide agent.
Some electric motors have two sets of field windings wound in opposite directions so that the speed of the motor can be more closely controlled. power output of the motor can be more closely controlled. motor can be operated in either direction.
One purpose of a growler test is to determine the presence of an out-of-round commutator. a broken field lead. a shorted armature.
Electric wire terminals for most aircraft applications must be what type? Slotted. Hook. Ring.
What is the principal advantage of the series-wound dc motor? High starting torque. Suitable for constant speed use. Low starting torque.
If a generator is equipped with a vibrator-type voltage regulator, the actual time the voltage regulator points remain open depends on the load carried by the generator. is controlled by the reverse-current cutout relay point clearance. is increased when the external load is greater than the generator output.
What is a cause of generator brush arcing? Seating brushes with No. 000 sandpaper. Carbon dust particles. Low spring tension.
What is required when operating two aircraft ac generators in parallel? Amperes and frequency must both be equal. Frequency and voltage must both be equal. Amperes and voltage must both be equal.
The starting current of a series-wound dc motor, in passing through both the field and armature windings, produces a low starting torque. speed slightly higher when unloaded. high starting torque.
Which motor would be most likely to have an armature brake? Starter motor. Landing light retraction motor. Inverter drive motor.
The method most often used in overcoming the effect of armature reaction is through the use of interpoles. shaded poles. drum-wound armatures in combination with a negatively connected series field.
The only practical method of maintaining a constant voltage output from an aircraft generator under varying conditions of speed and load is to vary the strength of the magnetic field. number of conductors in the armature. speed at which the armature rotates.
The pole pieces or shoes used in a dc generator are a part of the armature assembly. field assembly. brush assembly.
How many cycles of ac voltage are produced in a six-pole alternator of the revolving-field type for each revolution of the rotor? Four. Three. Six.
If the reverse current cutout relay contact points fail to open after the generator output has dropped below battery potential, current will flow through the generator armature in the normal direction and through the shunt field opposite the normal direction. and the shunt field opposite the normal direction. opposite the normal direction and through the shunt field in the normal direction.
How does the magnetic brake used to stop rotation of an electric motor armature operate? Centrifugal force releases a rotating brake cog from a stationary notch when the armature reaches a certain speed and magnetic force re-engages the cog when the electrical power is turned off. A friction brake is applied by a magnet and released by a spring. A friction brake is applied by a spring and released by a magnet.
In a generator, what eliminates any possible sparking to the brush guides caused by the movement of the brushes within the holder? The brush pigtail. Brush spring tension. Undercutting the mica on the commutator.
A series-wound dc electric motor will normally require more current at high RPM than at low RPM. approximately the same current throughout its operating range of speed. more current at low RPM than at high RPM.
The type of electric wire terminals used for most aircraft applications, in addition to providing good current carrying capabilities, are designed primarily to prevent circuit failure due to terminal disconnection. for uncomplicated and rapid circuit connection and disconnection. for permanent connection to the circuit.
Aluminum wire must be stripped very carefully because high resistance will develop in stripping nicks. stripping nicks can cause short circuits. individual strands will break easily after being nicked.
The commutator of a generator changes direct current produced in the armature into alternating current as it is taken from the armature. changes alternating current produced in the armature into direct current as it is taken from the armature. reverses the current in the field coils at the proper time in order to produce direct current.
An ammeter in a battery charging system is for the purpose of indicating the amperage available for use. total amperes being used in the airplane. rate of current used to charge the battery.
Which of the following is not one of the purposes of interpoles in a generator? Reduce field strength. Overcome armature reaction. Reduce arcing at the brushes.
To test generator or motor armature windings for opens, place armature in a growler and connect a 110V test light on adjacent segments; light should light. check adjacent segments on commutator with an ohmmeter on the high resistance scale. use a 12/24V test light between the armature core segments and the shaft.
What is the color and orientation of the position lights for navigation on civil airplanes? Left side - green, right side - red, rear aft - white. Left side - red, right side - green, rear aft - white. Left side - white, right side - green, rear aft - red.
To what depth is the mica insulation between the commutator bars of a dc generator undercut? One-half the width of the mica. Equal to twice the width of the mica. Equal to the width of the mica.
A voltage regulator controls generator output by introducing a resistance in generator-to-battery lead in the event of overload. shorting out field coil in the event of overload. varying current flow to generator field coil.
Which type of dc generator is not used as an airplane generator? Externally grounded. Series wound. Compound wound.
What is the most accurate type of frequency-measuring instrument? Integrated circuit chip having a clock circuit. Electrodynamometers using electromagnetic fields. Electromagnets using one permanent magnet.
During ground operation, aircraft generator cooling is usually accomplished by auxiliary air cooled through an air/fuel heat exchanger. an integral fan. an external motor-driven fan.
What does a rectifier do? Changes direct current into alternating current. Changes alternating current into direct current. Reduces voltage.
What type of instrument is used for measuring very high values of resistance? Megohmmeter. Shunt-type ohmmeter. Multimeter.
When a diode is checked for an open circuit or a short circuit, it should be in the circuit. checked with a milliamp ammeter. disconnected from the circuit.
When handling a high voltage capacitor in an electrical circuit, be sure it has a full charge before removing it from the circuit. has at least a residual charge before removing it from the circuit. is fully discharged before removing it from the circuit.
Which of the following is most likely to cause thermal runaway in a nickel-cadmium battery? A high internal resistance condition. Excessive current draw from the battery. Constant current charging of the battery to more than 100 percent of its capacity.
How can it be determined if a transformer winding has some of its turns shorted together? Measure the input voltage with an ohmmeter. The output voltage will be high. The transformer will get hot in normal operation.
Which of the following are the major parts of a dc motor? 1. Armature assembly. 2. Field assembly. 3. Brush assembly. 4. Commutator. 5. Pole piece. 6. Rheostat. 7. End frame. 1, 2, 3, 7. 2, 3, 4, 5. 3, 5, 6, 7.
(1) There are three basic types of dc motors; series, shunt, and compound. (2) In the series motor, the field windings, consisting of relatively few turns of heavy wire, are connected in series with the armature winding. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
What is the appropriate method for installing pre-insulated terminal lugs and splices to electric wires? Using a crimping tool to secure the terminal lug. Soldering the terminal lug to the end of the wire. Soldering the exposed wire prior to crimping on the terminal lug.
Which of the following factors must be taken into consideration when determining the wire size to use for an aircraft installation? 1. Mechanical strength. 2. Allowable power loss. 3. Ease of installation. 4. Resistance of current return path through the aircraft structure. 5. Permissible voltage drop. 6. Current carrying capability of the conductor. 7. Type of load (continuous or intermittent). 2, 5, 6, 7. 1, 2, 4, 5. 2, 4, 6, 7.
When selecting hardware for attaching bonding connections to an aircraft structure, which of the following should be considered? 1. Mechanical strength. 2. Allowable power loss. 3. Ease of installation. 4. Permissible voltage drop. 5. Amount of current to be carried. 6. Type of load (continuous or intermittent). 1, 3, 5. 4, 5, 6. 1, 2, 3.
How should the splices be arranged if several are to be located in an electrical wire bundle? Staggered along the length of the bundle. Grouped together to facilitate inspection. Splicing within wire bundles is not permitted.
What is the minimum bend radius for an electrical wire bundle? Ten times the outside diameter of the bundle. Five times the outside diameter of the bundle. Fifteen times the outside diameter of the bundle.
When approved, splices may be used to repair manufactured harnesses or installed wiring. The maximum number of splices permitted between any two connectors is one. two. three.
Electrical connectors used in the aircraft assemblies should meet which of the following specifications? Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA). Military Specifications (MS). Society of Electrical Specifications (SES).
The most common method of attaching a pin or socket to an individual wire in an MS electrical connector is by crimping. soldering. crimping and soldering.
The pin section of an AN/MS connector is normally installed on the power supply side of a circuit. the ground side of a circuit. either side of a circuit (makes no difference).
The voltage output of an alternator may be regulated by controlling the speed of the alternator. voltage output of the dc exciter. resistance in the rotor windings.
If several long lengths of electrical cable are to be installed in rigid conduit, the possibility of damage to the cable as it is pulled through the conduit will be reduced by dusting the cable with powdered graphite. dusting the cable with powdered soapstone. applying a light coat of dielectric grease.
Grounding is electrically connecting a conductive object to the primary structure. One purpose of grounding is to prevent current return paths. allow static charge accumulation. prevent development of radio frequency potentials.
What is normally used to bond noncontinuous stainless steel aircraft components? Stainless steel jumpers. Copper jumpers. Aluminum jumpers.
Aircraft fuse capacity is rated in volts. ohms. amperes.
When adding a rheostat to a light circuit to control the light intensity, it should be connected in parallel with the light. series with the light. series parallel with the light switch.
Circuits that must be operated only in an emergency or whose inadvertent activation could endanger a system frequently employ guarded switches. push-pull-type circuit breakers only (no switches). spring-loaded to off toggle or rocker switches.
If one switch is used to control all navigation lights, the lights are most likely connected in series with each other and parallel to the switch. in series with each other and in series with the switch. parallel to each other and in series with the switch.
Oil canning of the sides of aluminum or steel electrical junction boxes is considered to be normal operation in vibration prone areas. a shorting hazard. acceptable operation.
Electric wiring installed in aircraft without special enclosing means (open wiring) offers the advantages of ease of installation, simple maintenance, and reduced weight. When bundling open wiring, the bundles should be limited as to the number of cables to minimize damage from a single electrical fault. include at least one shielded cable to provide good bonding of the bundle to the airframe. be limited to a minimum bend radius of five times the bundle diameter to avoid excessive stresses on the cable insulation.
During inspection of the terminal strips of an aircraft electrical system, it should be determined that only locknuts have been used for terminal attachment to the studs. the terminal studs are anchored against rotation. only plain nuts and lockwashers have been used for terminal attachment to the studs.
What protection to wires and cables does conduit provide when used in aircraft installations? Electromagnetic. Mechanical. Structural.
Which of the following should be accomplished in the installation of aircraft wiring? Support the bundle to structure and/ or solid fluid lines to prevent chafing damage. Provide adequate slack in the wire bundle to compensate for large changes in temperature. Locate the bundle above flammable fluid lines and securely clamp to structure.
If the (+) terminal of a voltmeter is connected to the (-) terminal of the source voltage and the (-) terminal of the meter is connected to the (+) terminal of the source voltage, the voltmeter will read correctly. low voltage. backwards.
When using the voltage drop method of checking circuit resistance, the input voltage must be maintained at a constant value. output voltage must be maintained at a constant value. input voltage must be varied.
The nominal rating of electrical switches refers to continuous current rating with the contacts open. voltage rating with the contacts closed. current rating with the contacts closed.
Aircraft electrical junction boxes located in a fire zone are usually constructed of aluminum sheets. carbon steel. stainless steel.
To help minimize radio interference a capacitor will largely eliminate and provide a steady direct current if the capacitor is connected to the generator in parallel. series. series/parallel.
The primary considerations when selecting electric cable size are current-carrying capacity and allowable voltage drop. the voltage and amperage of the load it must carry. the system voltage and cable length.
The navigation lights of some aircraft consist of a single circuit controlled by a single switch which has an ON position and an OFF position, with no additional positions possible. This switch is referred to as a double-pole, single-throw (DPST), two-position switch. single-pole, double-throw (SPDT), two-position switch. single-pole, single-throw (SPST), two-position switch.
Electric circuits are protected from overheating by thermocouples. AN/MS connectors. fuses.
How should a coaxial cable be routed? Parallel with stringers or ribs. Perpendicular to stringers or ribs. As directly as possible.
Which of the following copper electrical cable sizes should be selected to replace a No. 6 aluminum electrical cable? No. 4. No. 6. No. 8.
In installations where the ammeter is in the generator or alternator lead, and the regulator system does not limit the maximum current that the generator or alternator can deliver, the ammeter can be redlined at what percent of the generator or alternator rating? 50 75 100.
Which statement relating to electric wiring is true? When attaching a terminal to the end of an electric cable, it should be determined that the strength of the cable-to-terminal joint is at least twice the tensile strength of the cable. When attaching a terminal to the end of an electric cable, it should be determined that the strength of the cable-to-terminal joint is at least equal to the tensile strength of the cable itself. All electric cable splices should be covered with soft insulating tubing (spaghetti) for mechanical protection against external abrasion.
Bonding connections should be tested for resistance value. amperage value. reactance.
What kind of switch should you install in a single wire circuit that required the switch to be manually held in the ON position? Single-pole, single-throw (SPST), two-position normally open (NO). Single-pole, single-throw (SPST), single-position. Single-pole, double-throw (SPDT), single-position normally open (NO).
A circuit breaker is installed in an aircraft electrical system primarily to protect the circuit and should be located as close to the source as possible. circuit and should be located as close to the unit as possible. electrical unit in the circuit and should be located as close to the source as possible.
How should a voltmeter be connected? In series with the source. In parallel with the load. In series with the load.
A circuit protection device called a current limiter is essentially a slow-blow fuse and is designed to be used in 400 cycle AC circuits. heavy power circuits. starter-generator circuits.
If it is necessary to use an electrical connector where it may be exposed to moisture, the mechanic should coat the connector with grease. use a special moisture-proof type. spray the connector with varnish or zinc-chromate.
Which of the following are considered circuit-protective devices that are used in aircraft electrical systems? Circuit breakers, relays, and current limiters. Circuit breakers, fuses, and current limiters. Circuit breakers, capacitors, and current limiters.
If a wire is installed so that it comes in contact with some moving parts, what protection should be given the wire? Wrap with soft wire solder into a shield. Wrap with friction tape. Pass through conduit.
In the American Wire Gauge (AWG) system of numbers used to designate electrical wire sizes, the number assigned to a size is related to its combined resistance and current-carrying capacity. current-carrying capacity. cross-sectional area.
What is the voltage drop for a No. 18 copper wire 50 feet long to carry 12.5 amperes, continuous operation? Use the formula VD = RLA VD = Voltage drop R = Resistance per ft = .00644 L = Length of wire A = Amperes 1/2V. 1V. 4V.
What is the purpose of the selection of derated switches for known continuous load current applications? To calculate the voltage drop across the circuit. To prevent short circuits in the motor field windings. To obtain reasonable switch efficiency and service life.
What is the advantage of a circuit breaker when compared to a fuse? It is easily replaced. It controls current flow. It is resettable and reusable.
What is the advantage of a current limiter? It breaks circuit quickly. It can be reset easily. It will take overload for a short period.
What should be used to protect wires from chafing when they must pass through bulkheads, firewalls, ribs, etc.? Aerodynamic duct tape. Suitable grommet. Plastic spiral wrap.
In aircraft electrical systems, automatic reset circuit breakers should not be used as circuit protective devices. are useful where only temporary overloads are normally encountered. must be used in all circuits essential to safe operation of the aircraft.
A certain switch is described as a single-pole, double-throw switch (SPDT). The throw of a switch indicates the number of circuits each pole can complete through the switch. terminals at which current can enter or leave the switch. places at which the operating device (toggle, plunger, etc.) will come to rest and at the same time open or close a circuit.
When considering an alteration, the criteria upon which the selection of electric cable size should be based are applied voltage and allowable voltage drop. current-carrying capacity and allowable voltage drop. current-carrying capacity and applied voltage.
What is an important factor in selecting aircraft fuses? The current exceeds a predetermined value. The voltage rating should be lower than the maximum circuit voltage. Capacity matches the needs of the circuit.
The circuit breaker in the instrument lighting system protects the lights from too much current. wiring from too much current. wiring from too much voltage.
One advantage of using ac electrical power in aircraft is that ac electrical motors can be reversed while dc motors cannot. greater ease in stepping the voltage up or down. that the effective voltage is 1.41 times the maximum instantaneous voltage; therefore, less power input is required.
Why are the iron cores of most induction coils laminated? To reduce the core reluctance. To increase the core permeability. To reduce the effects of eddy currents.
Certain transport aircraft use ac electrical power for all normal operation and battery furnished dc electrical power for standby emergency use. In aircraft of this type that operate no dc generators, the batteries are kept charged by inverters which use the aircraft's ac generators as a source of power. alternators which use the aircraft's generators as a source of power. rectifiers which use the aircraft's ac generators as a source of power.
The voltage in an ac transformer secondary that contains twice as many loops as the primary will be greater and the amperage less than in the primary. greater and the amperage greater than in the primary. less and the amperage greater than in the primary.
If the positive field lead between a generator and a generator control panel breaks and is shorted while the engine is running, a voltmeter connected to generator output would indicate zero voltage. residual voltage. normal voltage.
What is a method used for restoring generator field residual magnetism? Flash the fields. Reseat the brushes. Energize the armature.
The major advantages of alternating current (AC) over direct current (DC) is the fact that its current and voltage can easily be increased or decreased by means of a inverter. by means of a rectifier. by means of a transformer.
Which of the following must be accomplished when installing an anticollision light? Install a switch independent of the position light switch. Use shielded electrical cable to assure fail-safe operation. Connect the anticollision light to the aircraft position light switch.
The inductor-type inverter output voltage is controlled by the number of poles and the speed of the motor. voltage regulator. dc stator field current.
When using an ohmmeter to check the continuity of a generator field coil, the coil should be removed from the generator housing. show high resistance when the meter prods are connected to the terminals of the coil. show very low resistance if it is a series field coil.
The strength of the core of an electromagnet depends upon the material from which it is constructed and which of the following? The number of turns of wire in the coil and the applied voltage. The number of turns of wire in the coil and the amount of current (amperes) passing through the coil. The size (cross section) and the number of turns of wire in the coil and the applied voltage.
A voltage regulator controls generator voltage by changing the resistance in the generator output circuit. current in the generator output circuit. resistance of the generator field circuit.
The overvoltage control automatically protects the generator system when excessive voltage is present by opening the shunt field circuit. opening and resetting the field control relay. breaking a circuit to the trip coil of the field control relay.
When dc generators are operated in parallel to supply power for a single load, their controls include an equalizer circuit to assure that all generators share the load equally. The equalizer circuit operates by increasing the output of the low generator to equal the output of the high generator. decreasing the output of the high generator to equal the output of the low generator. increasing the output of the low generator and decreasing the output of the high generator until they are equal.
What is the maximum amount of time a circuit can be in operation and still be an intermittent duty circuit? Three minutes. Two minutes. One minute.
The most common method of regulating the voltage output of a compound dc generator is to vary the current flowing through the shunt field coils. total effective field strength by changing the reluctance of the magnetic circuit. resistance of the series field circuit.
(Refer to Figure 18.) Which of the batteries are connected together incorrectly? 1 2 3.
(Refer to Figure 19.) Upon completion of the landing gear extension cycle, the green light illuminated and the red light remained lit. What is the probable cause? Short in the down limit switch. Short in the gear safety switch. Short in the up limit switch.
If any one generator in a 24-volt dc system shows low voltage, the most likely cause is an out-of-adjustment voltage regulator. shorted or grounded wiring. a defective reverse current cutout relay.
How can the direction of rotation of a dc electric motor be changed? Interchange the wires which connect the motor to the external power source. Reverse the electrical connections to either the field or armature windings. Rotate the positive brush one commutator segment.
Static inverters are electronic devices that change DC to AC with the use of an oscillator. properties of an exclusive OR gate. input from an amplifier control by integrated circuits.
Aircraft which operate only ac generators (alternators) as a primary source of electrical power normally provide current suitable for battery charging through the use of a stepdown transformer and a rectifier. an inverter and a voltage-dropping resistor. a dynamotor with a half-wave dc output.
During inspection of an anticollision light installation for condition and proper operation, it should be determined that electrical or mechanical interconnections are provided so that the anticollision light will operate at all times that the position light switch is in the ON position. an appropriately rated fuse is in position at the light to protect the connecting wiring against electrical faults. the anticollision light can be operated independently of the position lights.
Major adjustments on equipment such as regulators, contactors, and inverters are best accomplished outside the airplane on test benches with necessary instruments and equipment. Adjustment procedure should be as outlined by the equipment manufacturer. the FAA. aircraft technical orders.
A battery-generator system provides direct current. On installations requiring alternating current from the battery-generator system, it is necessary to have a transformer. an inverter. a variable resistor between the battery and generator.
An aircraft electrical circuit control relay is an electronically operated switch. a device which converts electrical energy to kinetic energy. any conductor which receives electrical energy and passes it on with little or no resistance.
The purpose of a rectifier in an electrical system is to change the frequency of alternating current. direct current to alternating current. alternating current to direct current.
What is the ratio of turns between the primary coil winding and the secondary coil winding of a transformer designed to triple its input voltage? Primary will have one-third as many turns as its secondary. Primary will have twice as many turns as its secondary. Primary will have three times as many turns as its secondary.
In an ac circuit with no phase lead or lag, which is true? Real power is zero. Real power is greater than apparent power. Real power equals apparent power.
How are generators rated? Watts at rated voltage. Amperes at rated voltage. The impedance at rated voltage.
How is a shunt-wound dc generator connected? One field is shunted across the other. Both fields are shunted across the armature. The field and armature are shunted with a capacitor.
The poles of a generator are laminated to reduce flux losses. increase flux concentration. reduce eddy current losses.
What is the frequency of an alternator dependent upon? Voltage. RPM. Current.
Where is the generator rating and performance data located? In the Pilot Operating Handbook. Stamped on the generator data plate. In the Aircraft Maintenance Manual.
Residual voltage is a result of magnetism in the field windings. field shoes. armature.
In troubleshooting an electrical circuit, if an ohmmeter is properly connected across a circuit component and some value of resistance is read, the component has continuity and is open. either the component or the circuit is shorted. the component has continuity and is not open.
CSD driven generators are usually cooled by oil spray. an integral fan. both ram air and an integral fan.
A CSD unit drives a generator through the use of a synchronous electric motor. an infinitely variable mechanical gearing system. a variable hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor.
Integrated drive generators (IDG) employ a type of high output ac generator that utilizes brushes and slip rings to carry generated dc exciter current to the rotating field. battery current to excite the field. a brushless system to produce current.
If the Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) scavenge oil filter is contaminated with metal, you should do an oil analysis to diagnose the problem. remove and replace the IDG. replace the oil and filter at 25 hour intervals.
When necessary during operation, CSD disconnect is usually accomplished by a switch in the cockpit. circuit breaker activation. a shear section in the input shaft.
A CSD unit that is disconnected in flight, due to a malfunction such as overtemperature, may be reconnected automatically if the temperature falls back into the normal operating range. manually by the flightcrew. only on the ground by maintenance personnel.
An antiskid system is designed to solely sense the deceleration rate of every main landing gear wheel. release then reapply pressure at a slightly lower value only when a skid is detected. sense the deceleration rate of every main landing gear wheel and release then reapply pressure at a slightly lower value when a skid is detected.
In a brake antiskid system, when an approaching skid is sensed, an electrical signal is sent to the skid control valve which acts as a bypass for the debooster cylinders. relieves the hydraulic pressure on the brake. equalizes the hydraulic pressure in adjacent brakes.
An antiskid system is a hydraulic system. an electrohydraulic system. an electrical system.
Antiskid braking systems are generally armed by the application of brakes. a switch in the cockpit. the rotation of the wheels above a certain speed.
A typical takeoff warning indication system, in addition to throttle setting, monitors the position of which of the following? Ailerons, elevators, speed brake, and steerable fuselage landing gear. Elevators, speed brake, flaps, and stabilizer trim. Aerodynamically actuated slats, elevators, flaps, and speed brake.
The primary purpose of a takeoff warning system is to alert the crew that a monitored flight control is not properly set prior to takeoff. The system is activated by an 80 knot airspeed sensor. an ignition system switch not set for takeoff. a thrust lever.
(1) An airspeed indicator measures the differential between pitot and static air pressures surrounding the aircraft at any moment of flight. (2) An airspeed indicator measures the differential between pitot and cabin air pressures at any moment of flight. Regarding the above statements, both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. only No. 2 is true. only No. 1 is true.
The angle-of-attack detector operates from differential pressure when the airstream is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. is not parallel to the true angle of attack of the aircraft. is parallel to the angle of attack of the aircraft.
(1) When an airplane is slowed below approximately 20 MPH, the antiskid system automatically deactivates to give the pilot full control of the brakes for maneuvering and parking. (2) An antiskid system consists basically of three components; wheel speed sensors, control box, and control valves. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
In an antiskid system, wheel skid is detected by an electrical sensor. a discriminator. a sudden rise in brake pressure.
Which of the following functions does a skid control system perform? 1. Normal skid control. 2. Normal braking. 3. Fail safe protection. 4. Locked wheel skid control. 5. Touchdown protection. 6. Takeoff protection. 1, 2, 3, 4. 1, 3, 4, 5. 1, 2, 5, 6.
In the air with the antiskid armed, current cannot flow to the antiskid control box because the landing gear squat switch is open. down and lock switch is open. antiskid valves are open.
At what point in the landing operation does normal skid control perform its function? When wheel rotation deceleration indicates an impending skid. When wheel rotation indicates hydroplaning condition. Anytime the wheel is rotating.
(1) An antiskid system is designed to apply enough force to operate just below the skid point. (2) A warning lamp lights in the cockpit when the antiskid system is turned off or if there is a system failure. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
When an airplane's primary flight control surfaces are set for a particular phase of flight, such as landing or takeoff, the corresponding control-surface indicating system will show flap/slat position. speed break position. trim position.
The pneumatic (reed) type stall warning system installed in some light aircraft is activated by static air pressure. positive air pressure. negative air pressure.
Stall warning systems are generally designed to begin warning the pilot when a stall is imminent. is starting to occur. first affects the outboard portions of the wings.
(Refer to Figure 19.) What is the indication of the red landing gear position light under the following conditions? Aircraft on jacks. Landing gear in transit. Warning horn sounding. extinguished. flashing. illuminated.
(Refer to Figure 19). Which repair should be made if the gear switch was placed in UP position and the gear does not retract? Replace electrical wire No. 15. Replace the down limit switch. Replace electrical wire No. 12.
Which of the following conditions is most likely to cause the landing gear warning signal to sound? Landing gear locked down and throttle advanced. Landing gear locked down and throttle retarded. Landing gear not locked down and throttle retarded.
(Refer to Figure 20.) What will illuminate the amber indicator light? Closing the nosewheel gear full retract switch. Retarding one throttle and closing the left wheel gear locked down switch. Closing the nose, left and right wheel gear full retract switches.
(Refer to Figure 20.) What is the minimum circumstance that will cause the landing gear warning horn to indicate an unsafe condition? All gears up and one throttle retarded. Any gear up and both throttles retarded. Any gear not down and locked, and one throttle retarded.
Where is the landing gear safety switch usually located? On the main gear shock strut. On the landing gear drag brace. On the pilot's control pedestal.
What safety device is actuated by the compression and extension of a landing gear strut? Uplock switch. Downlock switch. Ground safety switch.
Which repair would require a landing gear retraction test? Landing gear safety switch. Red warning light bulb. Gear downlock microswitch.
Landing gear warning systems usually provide which of the following indications? Red light for unsafe gear; green light for gear up. Green light for gear up and down; red light for unsafe gear. Red light for unsafe gear; green light for gear down; no light for gear up.
In most modern hydraulically actuated landing gear systems, the order of gear and fairing door operation is controlled by sequence valves. shuttle valves. microswitches.
What landing gear warning device(s) is/are incorporated on retractable landing gear aircraft? A visual indicator showing gear position. A light which comes on when the gear is fully down and locked. A horn or other aural device and a red warning light.
The rotor in an autosyn remote indicating system uses an electromagnet. a permanent magnet. neither an electromagnet nor a permanent magnet.
The rotor in an autosyn remote indicating system uses an electromagnet. a permanent magnet. neither an electromagnet nor a permanent magnet.
The basic difference between an autosyn and a magnesyn indicating system is the rotor. transmitter. receiver.
The rotor in a magnesyn remote indicating system uses a permanent magnet. an electromagnet. an electromagnet and a permanent magnet.
Microswitches are used primarily as limit switches to limit generator output. control electrical units automatically. prevent overcharging of a battery.
Which of the following are some uses for a DC-selsyn system? 1. Indicates position of retractable landing gear. 2. Indicates the angle of incidence of an aircraft. 3. Indicates the altitude of an aircraft. 4. Indicates cowl flaps or oil cooler door position. 5. Indicates fuel quantity. 6. Indicates the rate of climb of an aircraft. 7. Indicates position of wing flaps. 1, 4, 5, 7. 2, 3, 4, 5. 2, 3, 5, 6.
(1) A DC-selsyn system is a widely used electrical method of indicating a remote mechanical movement or position. (2) A synchro-type indicating system is an electrical system used for transmitting information from one point to another. Regarding the above statements, only No. 1 is true. only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
Prior to installation of a pneumatic surface-bonded type deicer boots, on the leading edge of the wing, you should remove all paint from the area to be covered by the deicer boot. clean the surface with MEK and apply adhesive to the back of the deicer boot and leading edge of the wing. rough the surface with a mild abrasive.
Which of the following are found in a laminated integral electrically heated windshield system? 1. Autotransformer. 2. Heat control relay. 3. Heat control toggle switch. 4. 24V dc power supply. 5. Indicating light. 1, 2, 4, 5. 2, 3, 4, 5. 1, 2, 3, 5.
What is one check for proper operation of a pitot/static tube heater after replacement? Ammeter reading. Voltmeter reading. Continuity check of system.
What controls the inflation sequence in a pneumatic deicer boot system? Shuttle valve. Vacuum pump. Distributor valve.
What is the source of pressure for inflating deicer boots on reciprocating engine aircraft? Vane-type pump. Gear-type pump. Piston-type pump.
Which of the following regulates the vacuum of the air pump to hold the deicing boots deflated when the pneumatic deicing system is off? Distributor valve. Pressure regulator. Suction relief valve.
What may be used to clean deicer boots? Unleaded gasoline or Jet A fuel. Naphtha. Soap and water.
Some aircraft are protected against airframe icing by heating the leading edges of the airfoils and intake ducts. When is this type of anti-ice system usually operated during flight? Continuously while the aircraft is in flight. In symmetric cycles during icing conditions to remove ice as it accumulates. Whenever icing conditions are first encountered or expected to occur.
Which of the following indications occur during a normal operational check of a pneumatic deicer system? Relatively steady readings on the pressure gauge and fluctuating readings on the vacuum gauge. Fluctuating readings on the pressure gauge and relatively steady readings on the vacuum gauge. Pressure and vacuum gauges will fluctuate as the deicer boots inflate and deflate.
What method is usually employed to control the temperature of an anti-icing system using surface combustion heaters? Thermo-cycling switches. Thermostats in the cockpit. Heater fuel shutoff valves.
What is the purpose of the distributor valve in a deicing system utilizing deicer boots? To equalize the air pressure to the left and right wings. To sequence the deicer boots inflations symmetrically. To distribute anti-icing fluid to the deicer boots.
What is the purpose of the oil separator in the pneumatic deicing system? To protect the deicer boots from oil deterioration. To remove oil from air exhausted from the deicer boots. To prevent an accumulation of oil in the vacuum system.
Where are the heating elements located on most aircraft with electrically heated windshields? Laminated in the glass. Attached to the glass. Inside the windshield frame.
Two possible sources of heat for the operation of a wing thermal anti-icing system are first stage of the aircycle turbine and turbo compressor. compressor bleed air and aircraft electrical system. combustion heater and exhaust gases.
What maintains normal windshield temperature control in an electrically heated windshield system? Thermal overheat switches. Thermistors. Manually-controlled rheostat.
Arcing in an electrically heated windshield panel usually indicates a breakdown in the temperature-sensing elements. autotransformers. conductive coating.
Which of the following connects vacuum to the deicer boots when the system is not in operation, to hold the boots tightly against the leading edges in flight? Vacuum relief valve. Ejector. Distributor valve.
How do deicer boots help remove ice accumulations? By preventing the formation of ice. By breaking up ice formations. By allowing only a thin layer of ice to build up.
Why are the tubes in deicer boots alternately inflated? Alternate inflation of deicer boot tubes keeps disturbance of the airflow to a minimum. Alternate inflation of deicer boot tubes does not disturb airflow. Alternate inflation of deicer boot tubes relieves the load on the air pump.
What system component aids in the prevention of carburetor icing? Alcohol injection nozzle. Bleed air valve. Air diverter butterfly.
Why should a chemical rain repellant not be used on a dry windshield? It will etch the glass. It will restrict visibility. It will cause glass crazing.
What is the principle characteristic of a windshield pneumatic rain removal system? An air blast spreads a liquid rain repellant evenly over the windshield that prevents raindrops from clinging to the glass surface. An air blast forms a barrier that prevents raindrops from striking the windshield surface. A pneumatic rain removal system is simply a mechanical windshield wiper system that is powered by pneumatic system pressure.
What mixture may be used as a deicing fluid to remove frost from an aircraft surface? Ethylene glycol and isopropyl alcohol. Methyl ethyl ketone and ethylene glycol. Naphtha and isopropyl alcohol.
Which of the following is the best means to use when removing wet snow from an aircraft? A brush or a squeegee. Hot air. Warm water.
What are three methods of anti-icing aircraft windshields? 1. Blanket-type heating system. 2. An electric heating element in the windshield. 3. Heated air circulating system. 4. Hot water system. 5. Windshield wipers and anti-icing fluid. 6. Ribbon-type heating system. 2, 3, 5. 1, 2, 6. 2, 3, 4.
What icing condition may occur when there is no visible moisture present? Injector ice. Inlet ice. Carburetor ice.
What should be used to melt the ice in a turbine engine if the compressor is immobile because of ice? Deicing fluid. Anti-icing fluid. Hot air.
What is used as a temperature-sensing element in an electrically heated windshield? Thermocouple. Thermistor. Thermometer.
In what areas of aircraft would you find a carbon monoxide detector? Cargo and baggage compartment. Cabin and cockpit. Lavatory and engine nacelle.
What occurs when a visual smoke detector is activated? A warning bell within the indicator alarms automatically. A lamp within the indicator illuminates automatically. The test lamp illuminates and an alarm is provided automatically.
The types of fire-extinguishing agents for aircraft interior fires are water, carbon dioxide, dry chemical, and halogenated hydrocarbons. water, dry chemical, methyl bromide, and chlorobromomethane. water, carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, and dry chemical.
When air samples contain carbon monoxide, portable carbon monoxide detectors containing yellow silica gel will turn which color? Blue. Green. Red.
Smoke detection instruments are classified by their method of construction. maintenance. detection.
Smoke detectors that use a measurement of light transmissibility in the air are called thermocouple devices. photoelectrical devices. ultraviolet optical devices.
A contaminated carbon monoxide portable test unit may be returned to service by cleaning the indicating element with soap and water. removing the indicating element and installing a new indicating element. removing the indicating element from the exposed area for 24 hours.
Which fire-detection system measures temperature rise compared to a reference temperature? Fenwal continuous loop. Lindberg continuous element. Thermocouple.
A carbon dioxide (CO(2)) hand-held fire extinguisher may be used on an electrical fire if the horn is nonmetallic. handle is insulated. horn is nonmagnetic.
The proper fire-extinguishing agent to use on an aircraft brake fire is water. carbon dioxide. dry powder chemical.
Smoke in the cargo and/or baggage compartment of an aircraft is commonly detected by which instrument? Chemical reactor. Photoelectric cell. Sniffer.
Light refraction smoke detectors are activated when the detector measures a reduction in the amount of visible or infrared light in the surrounding area. senses light reflected from smoke particles passing through a chamber. uses radiation induced ionization to detect the presence of smoke.
Why does the Fenwal fire-detection system use spot detectors wired parallel between two separate circuits? A control unit is used to isolate the bad system in case of malfunction. This installation is equal to two systems: a main system and a reserve system. A short may exist in either circuit without causing a false fire warning.
A fire-extinguisher container can be checked to determine its charge by attaching a remote pressure gauge. weighing the container and its contents. a hydrostatic test.
What is the color code for fire-extinguisher lines? Brown. Yellow. Red and green.
The most common cause of false fire warnings in continuous-loop fire-detection systems is improper routing or clamping of loops. moisture. dents, kinks, or crushed sensor sections.
A thermocouple in a fire-detection system causes the warning system to operate because it generates a small current when heated. heat decreases its electrical resistance. it expands when heated and forms a ground for the warning system.
The thermocouple fire-warning system is activated by a certain temperature. core resistance drop. rate-of-temperature rise.
When used in fire-detection systems having a single indicator light, thermal switches are wired in parallel with each other and in series with the light. series with each other and the light. series with each other and parallel with the light.
Built-in aircraft fire-extinguishing systems are ordinarily charged with carbon dioxide and nitrogen. halogenated hydrocarbons and nitrogen sodium bicarbonate and nitrogen.
In reference to aircraft fire-extinguishing systems, (1) during removal or installation, the terminals of discharge cartridges should be grounded or shorted. (2) before connecting cartridge terminals to the electrical system, the system should be checked with a voltmeter to see that no voltage exists at the terminal connections. Regarding the above statements, only No. 2 is true. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true. neither No. 1 nor No. 2 is true.
What method is used to detect the thermal discharge of a built-in fire-extinguisher system? A discoloring of the yellow plastic disk in the thermal discharge line. A rupture of the red plastic disk in the thermal discharge line. The thermal plug missing from the side of the bottle.
The thermal switches of a bimetallic thermal-switch type fire-detection (single-loop) system are heat-sensitive units that complete circuits at a certain temperature. They are connected in parallel with each other, and in parallel with the indicator lights. parallel with each other, but in series with the indicator lights. series with each other, but in parallel with the indicator lights.
(Refer to Figure 21.) Using the chart, determine the temperature range for a fire-extinguishing agent storage container with a pressure of 330 PSIG. (Consider 330 PSIG for both minimum and maximum pressure.) 47 to 73°F. 47 to 71°F. 45 to 73°F.
(Refer to Figure 21.) Determine what pressure is acceptable for a fire extinguisher when the surrounding area temperature is 33°F. (Rounded to the nearest whole number.) 215 to 302 PSIG. 214 to 301 PSIG. 215 to 301 PSIG.
On a periodic check of fire-extinguisher containers, the pressure was not between minimum and maximum limits. What procedure should be followed? Release pressure if above limits. Replace the extinguisher container. Increase pressure if below limits.
In some fire-extinguishing systems, evidence that the system has been intentionally discharged is indicated by the absence of a red disk on the side of the fuselage. green disk on the side of the fuselage. yellow disk on the side of the fuselage.
If a fire extinguisher cartridge is removed from a discharge valve, it should be pressure checked. used only on the original discharge valve assembly. replaced with a new cartridge.
Which of the following are fire precautions which must be observed when working on an oxygen system? 1. Display 'No Smoking' placards. 2. Provide adequate fire-fighting equipment. 3. Keep all tools and oxygen servicing equipment free from oil or grease. 4. Avoid checking aircraft radio or electrical systems. 1, 3, and 4. 1, 2, and 4. 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Which fire-extinguishing agent is considered to be the least toxic? Carbon dioxide. Bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301). Bromochloromethane (Halon 1011).
Maintenance of fire-detection systems includes the repair of damaged sensing elements. servicing pressure type responder system. replacement of damaged sensing elements.
A squib, as used in a fire-protection system, is a temperature-sensing device. device for causing the fire-extinguishing agent to be released. probe used for installing frangible disks in extinguisher bottles.
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