We refer to ‘latent learning’ to any form of learning that does not produce immediate changes in the learner’s behaviour. True False. One of the reasons why the Psychology of Learning studies learning process in other species is because it is assumed that there is a general laws of learning, common to many species. True False. In the laboratory, the learning experience is divided into sessions, each of which includes different learning trials. True False. Learning produces relatively permanent changes in performance. True False. For learning to occur it is essential that the learner is exposed to some form of training experience. True False. All forms of behavioural changes are due to learning. True False. According to an evolutionary perspective, animal knowledge is innate whereas human knowledge is learnt. True False. Experimental methodology allows us to attribute observed behavioural changes to a learning experience and not to other factors. True False. The learning rate of a curve is the highest level of that curve. True False. According to the perspective of learning as a general process, foundamental processes of learning cannot be generalized to different species. True False. The use of animal models to study learning is justified because all forms of human learning can be studied in animals. True False. From an evolutionary perspective, innate and learnt forms of knowledge are determined by genetically coded mechanisms that have been acquired by means of evolution. True False. According to Darwin, learning mechanisms have been gradually acquired by the principles of evolution. True False. Fatigue and habituation are two types of learning that lead to a decline in responses as a consequence of a specific stimulus. True False. The phylogeny of behaviour refers to learnt behaviour. True False. The orienting reflex is an innate response whose magnitude may be modified by experience. True False. Sensitization is highly stimulus-specific. True False. Spontaneous recovery and dishabituation involve a partial recovery of a previously habituated response. True False. According to the Opponent-Process theory, drug tolerance occurs because the b process counteracts the effects of the primary effect of the drug. True False. According to the Opponet-process theory, the discomfort associated to the abstinence syndrome is produced by the affective post-reaction. True False. According to the Dual-process theory (Groves & Thompson), habituation starts later than sensitization. True False. Habituation generalizes much more easily to different stimuli than sensitization. True False. When someone is trained as a wine-taster, the receptive fields of some of their cortical neurons are modified, but not their topographic maps in cortical areas. True False. After years of training, Alejandro can distinguish perfectly well edible from non-edible wild mushrooms even if they are very similar. This is a clear example of behavioural habituation. True False. The Dual-process theory (Groves & Thompson) is able to explain habituation and sensitization by means of the activation of two independent and internal processes that interact to produce the final (observable) response. True False. The dishabituation effect is characterized by a very rapid decrease in elicited responses True False. Long-term habituation is obtained by presenting the eliciting stimulus very frequently (highly massive training). True False. The startle response is part of the defensive behaviour of the species and it is an elicited response. True False. Consummatory responses are much less stereotyped (are more varied) than appetitive responses. True False. Sensory adaptation is a specific form or type of habituation learning. True False. The Dual-process theory (Groves & Thompson) is able to explain why habituation is so stimulus specific True False. Solomon and Corbitt’s theory is based in the homeostasis concept. True False. Discrimination training, at variance with perceptual learning, always requires corrective feedback True False. In a conditioning trial, the trace interval is the time interval going from the offset of the CS to the onset of the US. True False. The CS-US interval (interstimulus interval) determines the type of CR that may be obtained. True False. A safety signal is an aversive conditioned inhibitor True False. Renewal studies show that extinction is context specific. True False. In reinstatement, exposures to the US after extinction produce the recovery of the CR True False. Extinction training in different contexts diminishes the renewal of the CR True False. Spontaneous recovery of the CR may be regarded as evidence favourable to the idea that the CS-US association completely disappears during extinction True False. The principle of relevance or belongingness shows that if the CS-US contingency is appropriate any CS may get associated with any US True False. No form of learning takes places when the CS-US contingency is zero True False. A suppresion ratio of -1 shows that no conditioning has taken place True False. Imagine that during a conditioned suppression procedure, the number of lever presses during the CS and during the absence of the CS is identical. We can be sure that fear conditioning has occurred True False. An excitatory aversive CS is a safety signal True False. Sign tracking is an appetitive procedure. True False. A suppression ratio of 0 means a very strong conditioned fear. True False. The summation and the retardation tests are used to measure inhibitory conditioning True False. In trace conditioning, the US is presented some time after the offset of the CS True False. According to Rescorla-Wagner (1972) The associative strength of a CS may be lower than 0.
True False. If the ABC compound stimulus is presented with the same US in the next training trial, all the CSs will modify their associative strengths True False. There will be a smaller level of surprise if that next trial with the ABC compound is an acquisition rather than an extinction trial. True False. In both groups, A and Y will become excitatory CSs True False. In Group 1, X will become an inhibitory CS True False. During Test, the X+Y compound will produce a greater conditioned fear response in Group 1 than in Group 2. True False. The suppression ratio will be closer to 0 in Group 2 than in Group 1 True False. Stimulus A will become a conditioned excitor in both groups. True False. In Group 1, stimulus X will become a conditioned inhibitor True False. At the end Phase 3, the suppression ratio to X will show greater conditioned fear in Group 1 than in Group 2 True False. In Group 1, conditioning to X in Phase 3 will be retarded in comparison to that conditioning in Group 2 True False.