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Syntax and Teaching grammar

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Syntax and Teaching grammar


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They represent words, phrases, or clauses that provide descriptions in clauses and sentences. Modifiers Complement Adverb clauses.
Grammar states that a complement is a constituent of a, noun, an adjetive or a clause or that is usted to predicate a description of the subject of a clause. It includes the direct object, indirect object, predicative complement and oblique object. On the other hand, an adjunct is an optional part of a sentence that can be removed without affecting the meaning of the clause; for example, the phrase " in Geneva" in the clause. Manuel killed a man in Geneva. She lives in Geneva. Christian is in geneva right now.
There are diferent... in English; they are used in speech and writing to ask questions, give commands, or make statements. Structural patterns. Adverbial structures. Modifiers.
Modifiers in English can take different forms. For example, they can appear as: Adjectives, adverbs, nouns,among others. Nouns, gerunds, articles and among others. Conjuctions, nouns, adjectives among others.
Complements refer to the constituent that is always required to complete sentences meaning. Choose the complement in the following example: "My son ,who will be twenty next week, has got a new job" My son Who will be twenty next week. Has got a new job.
Complete: " Collocation" is a familiar grouping of words, especially words that habitually appear together and thereby convey meaning by: Correcting Association. Collocating.
The term "Dependency" refers to the relationships between two words, for instance a head and its complement Therefore.... Dependency relations are the basis for modification. Dependency relations are the basis for constituency Dependency relations are the basis for accuracy.
Most students like the freedom they have in college. Usually college students live on their own, in the dormitory or in an apartament. this means they are free to come and go as they like. Their parents can´t tell them when to get up, when to go to school, and when to come home. It also means that they are free to wear what thay want. There are no parents to comment about their hair styles or their dirty jeans. Finally, they are free to listen to their favorite music without interference from parents. Now decide which of the following structures is a noun phrase: to come and go... ...their favorite music... ...when to come home...
Verbs that express movement as the verb GO in the clause "James goes to the beach on holidays" usually are followed by: Prepositional phrases of direction like on holidays as the complement of the verb. Prepositional phrases of direction like to the beach as the complement of the verb. Prepositional phrases of place like to the beach as the complement of the verb.
According to phrase structure rules in English, a phrase is a string of words which expresses menaing as illustrated in the structure: He lives with his family in Miami. He and his family live in Miami. Lives in Miami.
In English declarative transitive constructions, the main verb of the clause requires a noun to its left, which funtions as the subject, and another noun to ots right functions as an object ilustrated in... Michael Roses walks slowly. Michael Roses studies English Michael Roses seems tired.
In the clauses (a) "That young man bought a new car" and (b) "Did that young man buy a new car" , the meaning is the same, but... In sentences (b) the speaker asserts that the event took place. In sentences (a) the speaker asserts that the event took place. In both sentences (a) and (b), the speaker asserts that the event took place.
A particular string of words is regarded as a constituent only if that string of words can be conjoined with another string of the same type; for instance: Noun plus AND plus verb. Adverbial phrase plus AND plus noun phrase. Verb phrase AND plus verb phrase.
English Grammar states that the conjunctions "and, but, or" can join two or more structures od the same type; for example, ... A noun phrase+ a prepositional phrase. Two verb phrases or two noun phrases Two or more determiners.
Sentences in English are seldom formed by a single clause; most frequently, they are multi-clase structures identified as: Compound and single constructions. Complex and compound constructions. Main and dependent structures.
Grammar constructions are structures of different types that perform different functions, in order to hold a conversation, write a novel, or carry out any other type of linguistic exchange. These constructions are: Affirmative, write a novel, copula constructions. Clauses, phrases and words. Statements, questions and commands.
The clause "Peter and Vincent are the best workers´ is identified by speakers as... An copula, ascriptive construction. A copula, equative constructio. A copula, locative construction.
In English, Copula verbs usually link the subject of a clause with a complement. The main copula verb is BE; however, linking verbs can also perform as copula verbs; for example the verb: Eat, read, teach, among others. Feel, look, become, among others. Can, could, shall, among others.
In english, there are three types of voice: active, passive and middle. Form this calssification, the active voice focuses in the person or thing that performs an action; while, the passive voice focuses on the person or thing affected by an action. On the other hand, middle passives take verbs that are basically transitive as illustrated in: This textbook reads easily. A young man called in a doctor. A table was made by Thomas.
Typically, imperative sentences are short and simple, but they can be long, compound or complex structures as illustrated in: You should wlak throught this door and turn left at the next hallway. Could you leave the package at the door. Walk through this door and turn left at the next hallway.
Word classes are sets of words that display the same formal properties, especially dsitribution and types of inflections and derivations they might take. In traditional grammar, word classes are also known as: Speech acts. Parts of speech. Parts of grammar.
There are several types of verb dependent words and structures, like prepositional phrases, adverbs and noun phrases. These verb-dependent structures are known as... Verb complements. Semantic complements. Adjuncts.
Morpho-syntactic criteria refer basically to inflection and derivation features; while syntactic criteria refer to the position of words in any grammatical structure. One of the most promiment syntactic features in english refers to... The criterion that nouns take suffixes expressing number and person. The criterion that nouns occur to the right of the main verb in an active, declarative, intransitive clause. The criterion that nouns occur to the left of the main verb in an active, declarative clause.
An example of a syntactic feature of noun phrases is the word order that they have, as illustrated in the order of words in the following string. Article, adjective, adverb, noun. Article, adverb, adjective, noun. Article, noun, adverb, adjective.
According to a common semantic criterion, nouns denote people, things or places, verbs denote actions, and... Adjectives denote manner and condition Adjectives denote states Adjectives denote location and direction.
They are used to change the tense of verbs or to change a noun form its singular form to plural without changing the meaning of the underlying word. Inflectional affix. Derivational affix. Additional affix.
There are several different types of collocation. Collocations can be formed by adjective plus adverb, noun plus noun, verb plus noun and so on. Identify the combination of the collocation in: The titanic sank on its maiden voyage, as: Noun + noun. Adjective + noun. Adverb+ adjective.
Grammarians have realized that english contains a large number of set phrases that are not built upbut fixed, fact, they are phrases with a single meaning, as though they were a single word. They include expressions like: the thing is a waste of time, to tell you the truth, my point is, and so on. They are illustrated in: As a matter of fact, I do not work in business. I´m not really poor. I do not like potatoes ver much.
In English clauses like "Susan gave her son a new bike", the main verb requires: An animate noun to its left and an inanimate noun to its right. An animate noun to its left and another animate noun to its right. An inanimate noun to its left and an animate noun to its right.
Lexical verbs in English impose certain restrictions on the type of noun that can occur to their left or right. For example , in the clause "Paul killed his pet"... The verb "kill" requires a patient as its subject. The verb "kill" requires an animates being as its subject. The verb "kill" requiresan inanimate being as its subject.
English, like other human languages has several types of nouns like common, proper, countable, non-countable and collective. For example, some nouns have generic references, that is to say, they do not name particular things,places or people. They are known as... Common nouns. Proper nouns. Collective nouns.
Selectional Restrictions are a set of linguistic rules that affect lexical nouns and determine the type of verbs that might follow them. These restrictions regarding nouns are described in terms of ... Featues, as human versus non-human. Classes as transitive versus intransitive. Types of verbs as lexical versus non-lexical.
The propoun "WHOSE" indicates ownership and it can replace only possessive nouns. Whereas, the pronoun"THAT" can replace both human and non-humannoun. In addition, The pronoun THAT can appear in phrases functioning as... Subjects. Object and complements. Subjects, object and complements.
In the sentence" The police officer was interested in wheather the young lady had a driver´s licence". the subordinate clause modifies ... The preposition "IN". The adjective " INTERESTED" The clause " The police officer was interested ...".
Apply syntactic analysis analysis on the sentence Sam liked the food that you gave him; then decide wherther: The complementizer THAT can be deleted without altering the meaning of the sentence. The complementizer THAT cannot be deleted because the meaning of the sentence might change. The complementizer THAT has a lot of meaning.
Adverbial clauses add extra information to the sentence; they are optional. An adverbial clause like the one in the sentence "Steven should buy enought food for a month when he comes to town" modifies... The verb in the main clause. The whole clause. The noun `phrase in object position.
The sentence "School authorities believe that the academic level of our students is excellent" contains a subordinate clause which functions as a ... Relative clause. Adverbial clause. Complement clause.
Choose the sentence that contain an adverbial clause. Elizabet bought a new car that is very fast. James was given a great job because he has a college degree. Mathew suspect that Victoria stole his new computer.
Relative clauses like "which we bought" in the sentence "The farm which we bought is very far from town" modify ... Verbs. Adjectives Nouns.
A subordinate clause intrduced by a relative pronoun, like WHO or WHICH, is regarded as.. A complement clause or noun clause. A relative clause funtioning as an adjective. A main clause in intial position.
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