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Syntax n2

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Syntax n2

Cuadernillo segundo bimestre

Ronald Paul
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A large part of the meaning or sentence will depend on the perspective shown by the subordinating conjuction. For instance, in the sentence "jeremy took off his shoes so that he would not ruin the carpet", the perspective of the subordinator is: Purpose. Concession. Time.
There are some characteristics that distinguish subordinate clauses from main clauses; for example, relative and adverbial clauses cannot stand on their own because they do not express full meaning when they are in isolation; in addition, they only appear ... As interrogative and declarative structures. As declarative constructions. As imperative and declarative construction.
They are used to introducedependent clauses which cannot function as a sentences all by itself because it does not express full meaning. Coordinator Subordinator Relative clause.
In the sentence taken from spoken English " Bertha was wondering who did you ask for help", the subordinate clause is... A relative clause showing an interrogative structure A complement clause showing an interrogative structure. An adverbial clause showing an interrogative structure.
In the sentence " Your father would like you to tell him what the situation is", the structure pf the subordinate clause "what the situation is", has the form of... A direct question An indirect question An affirmative structure.
There are various types of non-finite clauses which are distinguished mainly by what type of finite clause they modify. Thus, the sentence " The man reading the newspaper didn´t hear my song" illustrates the following structure: Reduced adverbial nonfinite clause. Reduced relative nonfinite clause. Free participle nonfinite clause.
In the sentence: Solutions that fulfill the complex and often seemingly contradictory requirements of nature and humankind usually require long-term ecosystem research and monitoring. The subordinate clause is: ...that fulfill the complex and often seemingly contradictory requirements of nature and humankind usually require long-term ecosystem research and monitoring. ...that fulfill the complex and often seemingly contradictory requirements of nature and humankind. require long-term ecosystem research and monitoring.
In the sentence "we ate dinner where all the locals usually go to", the subordinate clause is: A complement clause modifying the amin verb An adverbial clause modifying the main verb. An adverbial clause modifying the main clause and referring to place.
The subject NP in the non-finite clause is often understood. For example, the sentence "Sam wants Paula to quit school" the finite clause is "Sam wants Paula" and the non-finite clause is "to quite school" where the subject of the verb"toquite" is... An understood you. An implicit she. An implicit he.
In the sentence "The police found the sculpture stolen from the National Museum", the reduced clause is An adverbial non-finite clause of "the police found the sculpture which had been stolen from the National Museum" A relative non-finite clause of "the police found the sculpture which had been stolen from the National Museum" A bare-verb non-finite clause of "the police found the sculpture which had been stolen from the National Museum".
In the structure "The gold miners wanted you to supervise their work" the main verb is: In the non-finite form. shows an infinitive form. In the finite form.
An infinitive clause functioning as the subject of a clause is illustrated in: Sam expects his son to clean up the mess. Greg poured me a drink To work hard is important for chinese people.
Finiteness is defined as the condition of a clause as tensed or untensed. We can recognize a finite clause when its main verb is preceded by an auxiliary, or it is in present or past tense, as it can be seen in: Andrew lives in a village. Rose and her brother to live a village. She like this town.
In the clause "Rolling stones down a steep hill is funny" The gerund clause is functioning as an adverb. The gerund clause is functioning as the subject. The gerund clause is functioning as verb phrase.
English Espeakers use a specific personal pronoun te refer barck to all indefinite pronouns, as in: If someone is interested in the house tekk him the price. If someone is interested in the house, give them the address. If someone is interested in the house, tell her the price.
The subjects in English clauses may perform different roles like doer, experiencer, causer and instrument. Then the role that the subject performs in the clause "The police officer hear some strange noise in the yard" is: Experiencer. Causer Instrument.
In english, oblique objects of transitive constructions occur immediately after a preposition in a clause; On the other hand , the indirect object is the noun or pronoun... That benefits the action described is the noun or pronoun... That appears before the main verb in declarative constructions. That occurs after a preposition.
when doing syntactic analysis, it is necessary to identify clause constituents regarding both structure and funtion. Structure refers to the internal syntax of a clause; while, function deals with the external syntax of a clause; that is to say... How words are put together to form phrases, as the relation between subject and verb. How constituents relate to one another as the connection existing between subject and verb. How phrases and caluses are structured whithin sentences. English might occur immediately after the verb in a clause. Indierct and oblique objects. Direct and oblique objects Direct and indirect object.
In the passive structure "That novel was written by this old man", the grammatical relation -that novel- shows what kind of relation? Relation of object Relation of subject Relation of predicate.
Identify the direct objects in the following paragraph: When Europans heard of spices like cinnamon, pepper, ginger and vanilla, they travelled to Asia to bring them home. People used spices to flavor their food and make them taste better. Spices, them, spices, it Them, spices, them, food, it Them, spices, their food, them.
In the sentence "The hut which Simon Craig bought was very small", the word "which" is recognized as... The direct object of the verb from "bought" The indirect object of the verb form "bought" The oblique object of the verb form "bought".
In Linguistic analysis, grammatical number is a category that affects nouns, pronouns and subject-verb agreement. In many languages, including English anSpanish, number categories are know as: Nominative, accusative and dative. Singular and plural. simple and complex.
Read the following paragraph: Even thought high school and college are both institutions of learning, they differ in at least three ways. The first difference between high school and college is their social atmospheres. In high school, homeworks is required to help motivate students to study. In college most homework consist studying; very little of it is written and turned in. Now decide what sort of syntactic linkage is illustrated in the first sentence. Subject-verb agreement as in "they differ in at least three... Subject-object agreement, as in "...high school and college are both institutions... Subject-verb agreement as in ..."is their social atmospheres.
Grammatical government is a type of syntactic linkage, which is very little productive in English; in fact, the onlyform of government appears in nouns and pronouns, which are marked for case, as illustrated in: Mike talked about the accident. Mike asked her about the accident. Mike blamed himslef for the accident.
In many westrn languages like Spanish, grammatical gener is a category that affects nouns, pronouns and adjectives; however, gender in English affects... Nouns and adjectives only Nouns and pronouns only Nouns, verbs and adjectives.
Syntactically speaking, the grammatical phenomenon known as goverment is very porr in English. In fact, there isonly one form of government that is worth to be mentioned; it is showed by... Nominative, accusative and genitive cases The relationship between subject and verb Person, gender and number.
The notions of numberand gender in English are not very productive. In fact, number affects only nouns, pronouns and verbs; while gender affects a small number of nouns and their pronoun and possessive adjective forms, as in: Samuel wroks in a hospital. Her job is very hard Samuel wroks in a hospital. he likes his job. Samuel wroks in a hospital. she lives her job.
In the clause "The team are discussing new legal strategies" the verb... Presents the team as a single unit. Presents the team as several individuals discussing about something. neither one.
A text to be coherent must have a "theme" and an "end- focus". The theme strating point and the end-focus is the closing point. In addition... The end-focus is what the text refers to. The end-focus is a bridge between two clauses. The theme is what the text refers to.
In linguistic analysis, the organization of of clauses and sentences into a text must meet some demands as signal what a text is about , introduce new entities and... Highlights information that the speaker or writer considers important. Provide information about the morphology of words. Provides ceirtain clues to distinguish clauses from phrases.
Speakers and writers use some particular structures to deal with relatively rigid word order of English. These structures include some adverbials like: Even, really, absolutely and namely. Free, lonely, great Thereafter according, hereon.
The "Existential there is used to introduce a new entity in a lecture, narrative, conversation or any other type of discourse; in addition, "there" in subject position might occur only if there is an indefinite noun phrase after the verb BE, as in: There is a rabbit in the garden There is the rabbit in the garden There is some rabbits in the garden.
By definition, a given entetyis the person or thing mentioned for a second time in the same piece of discourse. There are several ways to refer back to an entity already mentioned; one of them is illutrated in: Sam moved to Florida; he started a new life there Martha drives this car very fast. Martha is crazy Jane ate a pice of cake.
... is a grammatical device that applies to clauses with transitive verbs; it presents eventsfrom different perspectives. Constituency Voice mood.
a tense form that refers to an event that happened before another event in the past is known as past perfect, which is illustrated in the sentence: I had finished my homeworks whenmy son arrived I have finished my report on time. James has written a new book.
the simple presnt tense usually expresses habitual activities; however, this tense can express actual present time in a very limited number of uses called performatives, like in... Sam works in Paris You have to study more The school meeting is next week.
One instance of use of the passive voice is used is when we whis to emphatise what has happened, rather than who or what performed the action, as llustrated in "a big rainstorm hit the coast last night. Hundreds of houses were flooded". Another use for the passive voice comes when the doer of the action is unknown, as in: I worked as a camp flunky in the high Artic of Canada. The flat tire was changed by Sue. The entire stretch of highway was paved.
The present participle form of most verbs in English is in active voice, and it is used to formthe progressive aspect and as a gerund functions as an adjective to modify nouns. As a progressive, a participle is preceded by the auxiliary BE; Whereas, as a gerund, it might precede or follow the noun being modified, as illustrated in: Sebastian was buying biscuits The chiken has eaten corn Hard working people make a lot of money.
The perfect aspect sometimes indicates that an event that is over has relevance in the present; also, The perfect might indicate that an event has happened in the recent past. An event that has relevance in the present is illustrated in: Paul´s children have played tennis all morning They have broken the fence and they must fix it. Dan Brown has written several novels.
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